DO ADULT ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS AND THEIR TEACHERS HAVE SIMILAR APPROACHES TO SUCCESS?
This study explores the similarities and differences between adult language learners' and their teachers’ attributions of perceived success and failure in learning English as a foreign language in an intensive program. It examines attributions along with three dimensions: locus of causality, stability and controllability. 319 students and 81 teachers responded to a self-administered questionnaire and reported more attributions for failure than for success. The most frequent attributions both groups stated were effort, teacher, motivation, and participation. Causal dimensionality patterns of success and failure-oriented students did not show much differences. They both had significantly more controllable and unstable attributions. Teachers' dimensionality patterns did not differ from that of the students except for locus of control dimension. Causal dimensionality of both teachers and students seemed to be healthy attributional styles according to Weiner’s attributional model of achievement motivation.
- Brophy, J.E. (1998) Motivating students to learn. New York: McGraw-Hill.
- Chen, C. and Zhang, L. (2011) 'Temperament, personality and achievement goals among Chinese adolescent students', Educational Psychology, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 339-359. https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2011.559310
- Chen L.-Y. (2011) A study on the attribution orientation of senior high school students in English learning (Master’s thesis). Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, China.
- Ciabuca, A. and Gheorghe, L., 2014. 'Attribution for success and failure in Romanian context. Theoretical model that accounts for explaining performance', Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 159, pp. 254-260.
- Dong, Y., Stupnisky, R.H. and Berry, J.C. (2013) 'Multiple causal attributions: An investigation of college students learning a foreign language', European journal of psychology of education, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 1587-1602. https://doi.org/10.1007 /s10212-013-0183-4
- Dresel, M., Schober, B., Ziegler, A. (2005) 'Nothing more than dimensions? Evidence for a surplus meaning of specific attributions', The Journal of Educational Research, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 31-45. https://doi.org/10.3200/JOER.99.1.31-45
- Erten, İ.H. and Burden, R.L. (2014) 'The relationship between academic self-concept, attributions, and L2 achievement', System, vol. 42, pp. 391-401. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2014.01.006
- Glaser, B.G. (1992) Emergence vs forcing: Basic of grounded theory analysis. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology Press.
- Gobel, P. and Mori, S. (2007) 'Success and failure in the EFL classroom: Exploring students’ attributional beliefs in language learning', Euro SLA Yearbook, vol. 7, pp. 149-169.
- Gobel, P., Mori, S., Thang, S.M., Kan, N. H. and Lee, K.W. (2011) 'The impact of culture on student attributions for performance: A comparative study of three groups of EFL/ESL learners', Journal of Institutional Research (South East Asia)(JIRSEA), vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 27-43.
- Gobel, P., Thang, S.M., Sidhu, G.K., Oon, S.I. and Chan, Y.F. (2013) 'Attributions to Success and Failure in English Language Learning: A Comparative Study of Urban and Rural Undergraduates in Malaysia', Asian Social Science, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 53-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/ass.v9n2p53
- Graham, S.J. (1991) 'A review of attribution theory in achievement contexts', Educational Psychology Review. vol. 3, pp. 5-39.
- Graham, S.J. (2004) 'Giving up on modern foreign languages? Students’ perceptions of learning French', The Modern Language Journal, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 171- 191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0026-7902.2004.00224.x
- Hassaskhah, J. and Vahabi, M. (2010) 'An in-depth analysis of the relationship between age and attribution in EFL contexts', Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 5, pp. 2126–2132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.07.425
- He H.-Y. and Li F. (2010) 'A study on college students’ attribution of English learning', Journal of Hubei University of Economics (Humanities and Social Sciences), vol. 7, no. 7, pp.186-188.
- Hsieh, P.H.P., and Schallert, D.L. (2008) 'Implications from self-efficacy and attribution theories for an understanding of undergraduates’ motivation in a foreign language course', Contemporary Educational Psychology, vol. 33, pp. 513–532. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2008.01.003
- Hu, D.P., Shi, Z.Y. and Zhou, H. (2009) 'A survey of factors to influence college English autonomous-learning from the perspective of attribution theory', Foreign Languages and Their Teaching, 247, pp.34-37.
- Killen, R. (1994) 'Differences between students' and lecturers' perceptions of factors influencing students' academic success at university', Higher Education Research and Development, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 199-211. https://doi.org/10.1080/0729436940130210
- Lebedina-Manzoni, M. (2004) 'To what students attribute their academic successes and unsuccesses', Education, vol.124, no.4, pp. 699-708
- Lei, C. (2009) 'On causal attribution of academic achievement in college students', Asian Social Science, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 87-96. https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v5n8p87
- Little, A.W. (1985) 'The child’s understanding of the cause of academic success and failure: A case study of British school children', British Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 55, no.1, pp. 11–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8279.1985.tb02601.x
- Lu, J., Woodcock, S. and Jiang, H. (2014) 'Investigation of Chinese university students' attributions of English language learning' SAGE Open, October-December 2014, pp. 1-15.
- Mao C.-Z. (2003) A study of attribution of English learning for middle school students (Master’s thesis). Central China Normal University, Wuhan.
- Martinko, M. J. (1995). The nature and function of attribution theory within the organizational sciences. Advances in Attribution Theory: An Organizational Perspective, 7-14. Delray Beach, FL: St. Lucie Press.
- McClure, J., Meyer L.H., Garisch, J., Fischer, R., Weir, K.F. and Walkey, F.H. (2011) 'Students’ attributions for their best and worst marks: Do they relate to achievement?', Contemporary Educational Psychology, vol. 36, no.2, pp. 71-81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2010.11.001
- McQuillan, J. (2000) 'Attribution theory and second language acquisition: an empirical analysis', Paper presented at AAAL Conference, Vancouver.
- Niles, F. S. (1984) 'Attribution for academic success and failure in Sri Lanka', The journal of Social Psychology, vol. 125, no.3, pp. 401-402. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1985.9922906
- O'sullivan, J.T., Howe, M.L. (1996) 'Causal Attributions and Reading Achievement: Individual Differences in Low-Income Families. Causal Attributions and Reading Achievement: Individual Differences in Low-Income Families', Contemporary Educational Psychology, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 363-87. https://doi.org/10.1006/ceps.1996.0027
- Park, Y.S and Kim, U. (1998) 'Locus of control, attributional style, and academic achievement: Comparative analysis of Korean, Korean-Chinese, and Chinese students', Asian Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 1, pp. 191-208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-839X.00013
- Pintrich, P.R., and Schunk, D.H. (1996) Motivation in education: Theory, research, and applications. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.
- Pishghadam, R. and Zabihi, R. (2011) 'Foreign language attributions and achievement in foreign Language classes' International Journal of Linguistics, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.5296/ijl.v3i1.530
- Russell, D. (1982) 'The causal dimension scale: A measure of how individuals perceive causes', Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 1137- 1145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1687
- Şahinkarakaş, S. (2011) 'Young Students' Success and Failure Attributions in Language Learning', Social Behavior and Personality, vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 879-886.
- Schunk, D.H., Gunn, T.P. (1986) 'Self efficacy and skill development: influence of task strategies and attributions' Journal of Educational Research, vol. 79, no. 4, pp. 238- 244. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220671.1986.10885684
- Soric, I. (2009) 'Regulatory Styles, Causal Attributions and Academic Achievement', School Psychology International, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 403-420. https://doi.org/10.1177/0143034309106946
- Stipek, D.J. (1988) Motivation to learn: From theory to practice. 2nd ed. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
- Taşkıran, A. and Aydın, B. (2010) 'EFL learners' causal attributions and dimensionality styles for perceived success and failure', Anadolu University Journal of Social Sciences, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 11-26.
- Tremblay, P.F. and Gardner, R.C. (1995) 'Expanding the motivation construct in language learning', The Modern Language Journal, vol. 79, no. 4, pp. 505-518. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1995.tb05451.x
- Tse, L. (2000) 'Student perceptions of foreign language study: A qualitative analysis of foreign language autobiographies', The Modern Language Journal, vol. 82, no.1, pp. 69-84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/0026-7902.00053
- Tulu, G. (2013) 'Boys’ and girls’ attribution of performance in learning English as a foreign language: The case of Adama high schools in Ethiopia', Educational Research and Reviews, vol. 8, no. 23, pp. 2197-2211. http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR2013.1624
- Ushioda, E. (2001) Language learning at university: Exploring the role of motivational thinking. In Z. Dörnyei and R. Schmidt (Eds.), Motivation and second language acquisition (pp. 91-124). Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.
- Vallerand, R.J. and Richer, F. (1988) 'On the use of the causal dimension scale in a field setting: A test with confirmatory factor analysis in success and failure situations', Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 704-712. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1244
- Vispoel, W.P. and Austin, J.R. (1995) 'Success and failure in junior high school: A critical incident approach to understanding students’ attributional beliefs', American Educational Research Journal, vol. 32, no.2, pp. 377-412. https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312032002377
- Watkins, D. (1985) 'How students explain their academic performance', Higher Education Research and Development, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 89-93. https://doi.org/10.1080/0729436850040107
- Watkins, D. and Regmi, M. (1993) 'Attributing academic success and failure in Nepal', The Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 134, no. 2, pp. 241-242. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1994.9711387
- Waugh, C.K. (2002) 'Raising self-expectations: The key to motivating students with disabilities', Academic Exchange Quarterly, vol. 6, no. 2, pp.68-73.
- Weiner, B. (1979) 'A theory of motivation for some classroom experiences', Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 71, pp. 3–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-06126.96.36.199
- Weiner, B. (1984) Principles for a theory of student motivation and their application within an attributional framework. In R. E. Ames and C. Ames (Eds.), Research on motivation in Education (vol. 1, p. 15-37) Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
- Weiner, B. (1985) 'An attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion', Psychological Review, vol. 92, no.4, pp. 548–573. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033- 295X.92.4.548
- Weiner, B. (1986) An Attributional Theory of Motivation and Emotion, New York: Springer Verlag.
- Weiner, B. (2000) 'Intrapersonal and interpersonal theories of motivation from an attributional perspective', Educational Psychology Review, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 18-19. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009017532121
- Weisz, J.R. and Stipek, D.J. (1982) 'Competence, contingency, and the development of perceived control', Human Development, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 250- 28. https://doi.org/10.1159/000272812
- Williams, M. and Burden, R. (1999) 'Students’ developing conceptions of themselves as language learners', Modern Language Journal, vol. 83, no.2, pp. 193–201. https://doi.org/10.1111/0026-7902.00015
- Williams, M., Burden, R., Poulet, G. and Maun, I. (2004) 'Learners’ perceptions of their successes and failures in foreign language learning', Language Learning Journal, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 19–29. https://doi.org/10.1080/09571730485200191
- Williams, M., Burden, R. and Al-Baharna, S. (2001) Making sense of success and failure: The role of the individual in motivation theory. In Z. Dörnyei and R. Schmidt (Eds.), Motivation and second language acquisition (pp. 171-184). Honolulu: University of Hawaii.
- Yılmaz, C. (2012) 'An investigation into Turkish EFL students’ attributions in reading comprehension', Journal of Language Teaching and Research, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 823- 828. https://doi.org/10.4304/jltr.3.5.823-828
- Zeegers, P. (2004) 'Student learning in higher education: A path analysis of academic achievement in science', Higher Education Research and Development, vol. 23, no.1, pp. 35-56. https://doi.org/10.1080/0729436032000168487
- Zepke, N., Leach, L. and Butler, P. (2014) 'Student engagement: students' and teachers' perceptions', Higher Education Research and Development, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 386- 398. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2013.832160
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal on Efficiency and Responsibility in Education and Science
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors declare with this manuscript intended for publication to ERIES Journal that:
- all co-authors agree with the publication of the manuscript even after amendments arising from peer review;
- all co-authors agree with the posting of the full text of this work on the web page of ERIES Journal and to the inclusion of references in databases accessible on the internet;
- no results of other researchers were used in the submitted manuscript without their consent, proper citation, or acknowledgement of their cooperation or material provided;
- the results (or any part of them) used in the manuscript have not been sent for publication to any other journal nor have they already been published (or if so, that the relevant works are cited in this manuscript);
- submission of the manuscript for publication was completed in accordance with the publishing regulations pertaining to place of work;
- experiments performed comply with current laws and written consent of the Scientific Ethics Committee / National Animal Care Authority (as is mentioned in the manuscript submitted);
- grant holders confirm that they have been informed of the submitted manuscript and they agree to its publication.
Authors retain copyright and grant ERIES Journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the published work with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in ERIES Journal. Moreover, authors are able to post the published work in an institutional repository with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in ERIES Journal. In addition, authors are permitted and encouraged to post the published work online (e.g. institutional repositories or on their website) as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.