Education and Business as a key topics at the Instagram posts in the area of Gamification

  • Ladislav Pilar Faculty of Economics and Management, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic
  • Pavel Moulis Faculty of Economics and Management, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic
  • Jana Pitrová Třešňová 1480
  • Petr Bouda Faculty of Economics and Management, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic
  • George Gresham Davis College of Business, Jacksonville University, USA
  • Tereza Balcarová Faculty of Economics and Management, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic
  • Stanislav Rojík Faculty of Economics and Management, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic
Keywords: gamification, instagram, social network, business, education


The aim of this paper is to examine the communication content of Instagram social network users, on the basis of the hashtags they use relating to gamification and to define communities within the network in the context of education. The results are based on the analysis of  Instagram's worldwide social network. Primary data were collected using a script to capture communication on the social network Instagram. The analysis included Instagram photos selected on the basis of hashtag #gamification (17,994 contributions). The results identify that the most commonly associated expressions with hashtags #gamification are hashtags associated with education and business, especially where startup and innovation are concerned. On the basis of an analysis visually isolated communities with average modularity of 0.506 were identified, which relate to the communication of the gamification on the social network Instagram: 1) Education, 2) Entrepreneurship, 3) Gamification in general, 4) Social and 5) Enjoyment. The benefit of analysis for the education area is to identify the university‘s links between Education and Entrepreneurship and the Teacher and Trust between education and enjoyment.


  • Alhammad, M. and Moreno, A.M. (2018) ‘Gamification in software engineering education: A systematic mapping’, Journal of Systems and Software, Vol. 141, pp. 131-150.

  • Antoniou, I. E. and Tsompa, T. (2008) ‘Statistical analysis of weighted networks’, Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society, Vol. 2008, pp. 1–16.

  • Bittner, J.V. and Schipper, J. (2014) ‘Motivational effects and age differences of gamification in product advertising’, Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 31, No. 5, pp. 391-400.

  • Blondel, V., Guillaume, J.L., Lambiotte, R. and Lefebvre, E. (2008) ‘Fast Unfolding of Communities in Large Networks’, Journal of Statistical Mechanics Theory and Experiment, Vol. 2008, No. 10.

  • Boyd, D.M. and Ellison, N.B. (2007) ‘Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship’, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 210–23.

  • Burguillo, J. (2010) ‘Using Game-Theory and Competition-based Learning to Stimulate Student Motivation and Performance’, Computers & Education, Vol. 55, No. 2,  pp. 566-575.

  • Caixeta, C.C., Nascimento, A. Jr. and Abreu, A. M. (2016) ‘The Influence of Social Media on Consumer Perception of Brands’, Espacios, Vol. 37, No. 27, pp. 17.

  • Carrington, P.J., Scott, J. and Wasserman, S. (2005) ’Models and methods in social network analysis’. New York: Cambridge University Press. 

  • Chorney, A. I. (2012) ‘Taking the game out of gamification’, Dalhousie Journal Of Interdisciplinary Management, Vol. 8, No.1. pp. 1-14.

  • Paharia, R. (2013) ‘Loyalty 3.0: how big data and gamification are revolutionizing customer and employee engagement‘. New York: McGraw-Hill. 

  • Dignan, A. (2011) Game Frame: Using Games as a Strategy for Success. New York: Free Press.

  • Duggan, M. (2015) Mobile Messaging and Social Media 2015, [online], Available:
    2015 /2015-08 -19_social-media-update_09/ [17 Aug 2015].

  • Efron, M. (2010) ‘Hashtag retrieval in a microblogging environment’ In Proceedings of the 33rd international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval (SIGIR '10), New York, USA,  pp. 787-788.

  • Fini, R., Grimaldi, R., Santoni, S. and Sobrero, M. (2011) ‘Complements or substitutes? The role of universities and local context in supporting the creation of academic spin-offs’, Research Policy, Vol. 40, pp. 1113–1127.

  • Galan, F. (2013) ‚Introducing some gamification features in an undergraduate entrepreneurship course’, In: EDULEARN13 Proceedings, pp. 5432-5437.

  • Giaxoglou, K. (2018)  ‘#JeSuisCharlie? Hashtags as narrative resources in contexts of ecstatic sharing’, Discourse, Context & Media, vol. 22, pp. 13–20.

  • Google (2018) gamification – Google Trends, [online], Available at: [23  Sep 2018].

  • Gruzd, A. (2016) Netlytic: So ware for Automated Text and Social Network Analysis, [Software], Available:

  • Hamari, H., Shernoff, D.J., Rowe, E., Coller, B.,  Asbell-Clarke, J. Edwards, T. (2016) ‘Challenging games help students learn: An empirical study on engagement, flow and immersion in game-based learning’, Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 54, pp. 170-179,

  • Hamari, J., Koivisto, J. And Sarda, H. (2014)  „Does Gamification Work? -- A Literature Review of Empirical Studies on Gamification“, 2014 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE, 2014, 2014, pp. 3025-3034.

  • Harman, K., Koohang, A. and Paliszkiewicz, J. (2014) ‘Scholarly interest in gamification: a citation network analysis’, Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol. 114, No. 9, pp. 1438 - 1452.

  • Harwood, T. and Garry, T. (2015) ‘An investigation into gamification as a customer engagement experience environment’, Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 29, No. 6/7, pp. 533-546.

  • Holmes, J.B. and Gee , E.R. (2016) ‘A framework for understanding game-based teaching and learning’, On the Horizon, Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 1-16.

  • Hu Y., Manikonda L. and Kambhampati S. (2014) ‘What we instagram: A first analysis of instagram photo content and user types’, In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, ICWSM 2014, pp. 595-598.

  • Ilyas, M.U. and Radha, H. (2011) ‘Identifying Influential Nodes in Online Social Networks Using Principal Component Centrality’, In The 2011 IEEE International Conference on Communications, IEEE, Kyoto, June 2011, pp. 1-5.

  • Insley, V. and Nunan, D. (2014) ‘Gamification and the online retail experience’, International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol. 42, No. 5, pp. 340-351.

  • Jackson, C. A. and Luchner, A. F. (2017) ‘Self-presentation mediates the relationship between self-criticism and emotional response to Instagram feedback’, Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 133, pp.1-6.

  • Knoke, D. and Yang, S. (2008) Social Network Analysis, Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.

  • Kumar, H. and Raghavendran, S. (2015) ‘Gamification, the finer art: fostering creativity and employee engagement’, Journal of Business Strategy, Vol. 36, No. 6, pp. 3-12.

  • Kusuma, G.D., Wigati, E.K. and Suryapranata, L.K.P., (2018) ‘Analysis of Gamification Models in Education Using MDA Framework’, Procedia Computer Science, Vol. 135, pp. 385-392.

  • Lup, K. L., Trub, L. and Rosenthal, L. (2015) ‘Instagram #Instasad?: Exploring Associations Among Instagram Use, Depressive Symptoms, Negative Social Comparison, and Strangers Followed’, Cyberpsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 247-252.

  • Marczak, S., Filho, F., Singer, L., Treude, Ch., Steffens, F., Redmiles, D. and Ban, A.A. (2015) ‘Studying Gamification as a Collaboration Motivator for Virtual Software Teams: Social Issues, Cultural Issues, and Research Methods’, In CSCW ’15 Companion, Vancouver, BC.

  • Marczewski, A. (2013) Gamification: A Simple Introduction.

  • Meyer, C. D. (2010) Matrix analysis and applied linear algebra. Philadelphia: Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia: Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics

  • Naaman, M., Boase, J. and Lai, C.-H. (2010) ‘Is it really about me?: message content in social awareness streams’, In Proceedings of the 2010 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work, New York, USA, pp. 189-192.

  • Pavlíček, J., Švec, V., Tichá, I. and Hanzlík, L. (2014) ‘Business Games Powered by Articial Intelligence in Education’, in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Efficiency and Responsibility in Education 2014, Prague, pp. 186–195.

  • Pilař, L., Rojík, S., Balcarová, T. Poláková, J. (2016a) ‘Gamification in Education: Current State’, in Proceedings of the 13th International conference on Efficiency and Responsibility in Education 2016, Prague, pp. 463-471.

  • Pilař, L., Balcarová, T. and Rojík, S. (2016b) ‘Farmers’ Markets: Positive Feelings of Instagram Posts’, Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, vol. 64, No. 6, pp. 2095-2100.

  • Pilař, L., Rojík, S., Tučková, K., Balcarová, T. and Selby, R. (2017a) “Gamification in Education: social network analysis’, in Proceedings of the 14th International conference on Efficiency and Responsibility in Education 2017, Prague, pp. 318-324.

  • Pilař, L., Poláková, J., Gresham, G., Rojík, S. and Tichá, I. (2017b) ‘Why people use hashtags when visiting farmers´ markets’, In Agrarian perspectives Proceedings of the 26th International Conference, Prague, Czech Republic, pp.287-292.

  • Prahalad, C.K. and Ramaswamy, V. (2004) ‘Co-creation experiences: the next practice in value creation’, Journal of Interactive Marketing, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 5-14.

  • Sarangi, S. and Shah, S. (2015) ‘Individuals, teams and organizations score with gamification’, Human Resource Management International Digest, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 24-27.

  • Scott, J. (2000) Social network analysis: A handbook, London: SAGE Publications.

  • Sheldon B. and Bryant K. (2016) ‘Instagram: Motives for its use and relationship to narcissism and contextual age’, Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 58, pp. 89-97.

  • Smith M.A., Rainie L., Shneiderman B. and Himelboim I. (2014) Mapping Twitter Topic Networks: From Polarized Crowds to Community, [Online], Available: [20 Feb  2014].

  • Swan, C. (2012) ‘Gamification: a new way to shape behavior’, Communication World, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 13-14.

  • Švec, V. (2014) ‘Gamification in marketing communication course: a fictitious products´ promotion at virtual market’, in ICERI2014 Proceedings, Seville, pp. 5206-5211.

  • Trees, L. (2015) ‘Encouraging millennials to collaborate and learn on the job’, Strategic HR Review, Vol. 14, No. 4,  pp. 118-123.

  • Villagrasa, S., Fonseca, D., Redondo, E. and Duran, J. (2014) ‘Teaching case of gamification and visual technologies for education’, Journal of Cases on Information Technology, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 38-57.

  • Wagner, K. (2015) Instagram is the fastest growing major social network. [Online]. Available: [25 Feb 2019].

  • Wang, X., Wei, F., Liu X., Zhou, M. and Zhang, M. (2011) ‘Topic sentiment analysis in twitter: a graph-based hashtag sentiment classification approach’, In Proceedings of the 20th ACM international conference on Information and knowledge management (CIKM '11), New York, USA, pp. 1031-1040.

  • Zichermann, G. and Linder, J. (2010) Game Based Marketing: Inspire Customer Loyalty Through Rewards, Challenges, and Contests, Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.

How to Cite
Pilar, L., Moulis, P., Pitrová, J., Bouda, P., Gresham, G., Balcarová, T. and Rojík, S. (2019) ’Education and Business as a key topics at the Instagram posts in the area of Gamification’, Journal on Efficiency and Responsibility in Education and Science, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 26-33.
Research Paper