Structural Relationships among Teachers’ Goal Orientations for Teaching, Self-efficacy, Burnout, and Attitudes towards Teaching
Keywords:Attitude, burnout, goal orientations for teaching, self-efficacy, structural equation modelling
Teachers’ goal orientations for teaching are one of the most important motivational beliefs affecting instructional processes. This study investigated the structural relationship between teachers’ goal orientations for teaching and their attitudes towards their job through measures of self-efficacy and burnout. 495 teachers (primary, secondary, or high schools) participated in the study. Hypothetical models were created and tested using the variables mentioned above. The results suggest: 1) mastery goal orientation, through self-efficacy and burnout measures, is a positive predictor of attitudes towards teaching, 2) work-avoidance orientation, through self-efficacy and burnout measures, is a negative predictor of attitudes towards teaching and 3) ability-approach orientation has no effect on attitudes towards teaching. In addition, it has been found that the above goal orientations do not have a direct effect on teachers’ attitudes towards teaching. The results are further discussed through comparisons to related literature.
Ames, C. (1992) ‘Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation’, Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 84, No.3, pp. 261-271. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.84
Altun, B. (2014) Critical approach to supervision: How should teacher supervision be? Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Adnan Menderes University, Institute of Social Sciences, Department of Education Sciences.
Aslanargun, E. and Göksoy, S. (2013) ‘Who Should Supervise Teachers?’, Journal of Uşak University Social Sciences, Vol. 14, pp. 98-121.
Anderman, E. M. and Maehr, M. L. (1994) ‘Motivation and schooling in the middle grades’, Review of Educational Research, Vol. 64, No. 2 pp. 287–309. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543064002287
Anderman, E.M., Eccles, J.S., Yoon, K.S., Roeser, R., Wigfield, A. and Blumenfeld, P. (2001) ‘Learning to value mathematics and reading: Relations to mastery and performance-oriented instructional practices’, Contemporary Educational Psychology, Vol. 26, No. 1 pp. 76–95. https://doi.org/10.1006/ceps.1999.1043
Ashton, P. (1984) ‘Teacher efficacy: A motivational paradigm for effective teacher education’, Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 35, No. 5, pp. 28-32. https://doi.org/10.1177/002248718403500507.
Ayra, M. and Kösterelioğlu, I. (2015) ‘The relationship between teachers’ lifelong learning tendencies and their perceptions of professional self-efficacy’, E Journal of New World Sciences Academy, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 17-28. http://dx.doi.org/10.12739/NWSA.2015.10.1.1C0630
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.
Baumgartner, H. and Homburg, C. (1996) ‘Applications of structural equation modeling in marketing and consumer research: A review’, International Journal of Research in Marketing, Vol. 13, No.2, pp.139-161. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-8116(95)00038-0
Bentler, P.M. and Bonett, D.G. (1980) ‘Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures’, Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 88, No. 3, pp. 588-606. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.88.3.588
Brouwers, A. and Tomic, W. (2000) ‘A longitudinal study of teacher burnout and perceived self-efficacy in classroom management’, Teaching and Teacher Education, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 239-253. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0742-051X(99)00057-8
Butler, R. (2007) ‘Teachers’ achievement goal orientations and associations with teachers’ help seeking: Examination of a novel approach to teacher motivation’, Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 99, No. 2, pp. 241–252. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0622.214.171.124
Butler, R. (2012) ‘Striving to connect: Extending an achievement goal approach to teacher motivation to include relational goals for teaching’, Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 104, No. 3, pp. 726-742. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0028613
Butler, R. and Shibaz, L. (2008) ‘Achievement goals for teaching as predictors of students’ perceptions of instructional practices and students’ help seeking and cheating’, Learning and Instruction, Vol. 18, No. 5, pp. 453–467. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2008.06.004
Browne, M.W. and Cudeck, R. (1993) ‘Alternative ways of assessing model fit’, in: Bollen, K.A. and Long, J.S. (Eds.) Testing structural equation models. Newbury prak, CA: Sage, pp. 136-162.
Carson, R. L., Plemmons, S., Templin, T. J. and Weiss, H. M. (2011) ‘“You are who you are:” A mixed method study of affectivity and emotional regulation in curbing teacher burnout’, in Reevy, G. M. and Frydenberg, E. (Eds.) Personality, stress and coping: Implications for education, Charlotte, NC: Information Age, pp. 239–265.
Cemaloğlu, N. and Şahin, D. E. (2007) ‘Study of the teacher’s burnout level according to various variables’, Kastamonu Educational Journal, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 465-484.
Chang, M. L. (2009) ‘An appraisal perspective of teacher burnout: Examining the emotional work of teachers’, Educational Psychology Review, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 193-218. https://doi.org/10.4236/jssm.2017.106038
Cho, Y.J. and Shim, S.S. (2013) ‘Predicting teachers’ achievement goals for teaching: The role of perceived school goal structure and teachers’ sense of efficacy’, Teaching and Teacher Education, Vol. 32, pp. 12-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2012.12.003
Coats, E. J., Janoff-Bulman, R. and Alpert, N. (1996) ‘Approach versus avoidance goals: Differences in self-evaluation and well-being’, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 22, No. 10, pp. 1057–1067. https://doi.org/10.1177/01461672962210009
Çapa, Y., Çakıroğlu, J. and Sarıkaya, H. (2005) ‘The Development and validation of a Turkish version of the Teacheıs’ Sense of Efficacy Scale’, Education and Science, Vol. 30, No. 137, pp. 74-81.
Çapri, B. and Çelikkaleli, Ö. (2008) ‘Investiation of pre-service teachers’ attitudes towards teaching and professional self-efficacy beliefs according to their gender, programs, and faculties’, Journal of İnönü University Education Faculty, Vol. 9, No. 15, pp. 33–53.
Dadandı, İ., Kalyon, A. and Yazici, H. (2016) ‘Teacher self-efficacy beliefs, concerns and attitudes towards teaching profession of faculty of education and pedagogical formation students’, Journal of Bayburt Education Faculty, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 253-269. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/92333
Demirtaş, H., Cömert, M., and Özer, N. (2011) ‘Pre-service teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes towards profession’, Education and Science, Vol. 36, No. 159, pp. 96-111.
Dresel, M., Fasching, M.S., Steuer, G., Nitsche, S. and Dickhäuser, O. (2013) ‘Relations between teachers’ goal orientations, their instructional practices and students’ motivation’, Psychology, Vol. 4, No. 7, pp. 572-584. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/psych.2013.47083
Dweck, C.S. (1986) ‘Motivational processes affecting learning’, American Psychologist, Vol. 41, No. 10, pp. 1040-1048. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.41.10.1040
Dweck, C. S. and Leggett, E. L. (1988) ‘A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality’, Psychological Review, Vol. 95, No. 2, pp. 256-273. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.95.2.256
Elliott, E. S. and Dweck, C. S. (1988) ‘Goals: An approach to motivation and achievement’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 54, No. 1, pp. 5-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.199
Elliot, A.J. and Harackiewicz, J.M. (1996) ‘Approach and avoiding achievement goals and intrinsic motivation: A meditational analysis’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 70, No. 3, pp. 461–475. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.521
Elliot, A.J. and McGregor, H.A. (2001) ‘A 2×2 achievement goal framework’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 80, No. 3, pp. 501–519. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2061
Evers, W. J., Brouwers, A. and Tomic, W. (2002) ‘Burnout and self‐efficacy: A study on teachers' beliefs when implementing an innovative educational system in the Netherlands’, British Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 72, No. 2, pp. 227-243. https://doi.org/10.1348/000709902158865
Ford, M. E. (1992) Motivating humans: Goals, emotions, and personal agency beliefs. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Fyans, L. J., Salili, F., Maehr, M. L. and Desai, K. A. (1983) ‘A cross-cultural exploration into the meaning of achievement’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 44, No. 5, pp. 1000-1013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.110
Gable, S. L., Reis, H. T. and Elliot, A. J. (2000) ‘Behavioral activation and inhibition in everyday life’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 78, No. 6, pp. 1135–1149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1685
Gerrig, R. J. and Zimbardo, P.G. (2005) Psychology and Life, Boston: Pearson.
Gorozidis, G. and Papaioannou, A. (2011) Teachers’ self-efficacy, achievement goals, attitudes and intentions to implement the new Greek physical education curriculum’, European Physical Education Review, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 231-253. https://doi.org/10.1177/1356336X11413654
Hagen, A. S. and Weistein, C. E. (1995) ‘Achievement goals, self-regulated learning, and the role of the classroom context’, in Pintrich, P. R. (Ed.) Understanding self-regulated learning, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, pp. 43-55.
Heponiemi, T., Keltikangas-Järvinen, L., Puttonen, S. and Ravaja, N. (2003) ‘BIS/BAS sensitivity and self-rated affects during experimentally induced stress’, Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 34, No. 6. pp. 943–957. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00079-X
İnce, N., B. and Şahin, A. E. (2015) ‘The adaptation study of Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey to Turkish’, Journal of Measurement and Evaluation in Education and Psychology, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 385-399. https://doi.org/10.21031/epod.97301
Han, J., Yin, H. and Wang, W. (2016) ‘The effect of tertiary teachers’ goal orientations for teaching on their commitment: The mediating role of teacher engagement’, Educational Psychology, Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 526-547. https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2015.1044943
Herman, K. C., Hickmon-Rosa, J. E. and Reinke, W. M. (2018) ‘Empirically derived profiles of teacher stress, burnout, self-efficacy, and coping and associated student outcomes’, Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 90-100. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300717732066
Kline, R.B. (2011) Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: The Guilford Press.
Kucsera, J. V., Roberts, R., Walls, S., Walker, J. and Svinicki, M. (2011) ‘Goal orientation towards teaching (GOTT) scale’, Teachers and Teaching, Vol. 17, No. 5, pp. 597-610. https://doi.org/10.1080/13540602.2011.602212.
Kurtar, K. (2018) The relationship between perceived control perceptions and professional motivation levels of primary school teachers' managers (An example of Edirne). Unpublished master thesis. Trakya University, Institute of Social sciences, Department of Educational Sciences, Educational Administration, [online], Available: https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/ [13 Feb 2019].
Lamude, K. G., Scudder, J. and Furno-Lamude, D. (1992) ‘The relationship of student resistance strategies in the classroom to teacher burnout and teacher type-A behavior’, Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 597-610.
Lench, H. C. and Levine, L. J. (2008) ‘Goals and responses to failure: Knowing when to hold them and when to fold them’, Motivation and Emotion, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 127–140. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-008-9085-1
Leondari, A. and Gialamas, V. (2002) ‘Implicit theories, goal orientations, and perceived competence: Impact on students' achievement behavior’, Psychology in the Schools, Vol. 39, No. 3, pp. 279-291. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.10035
Marsh, H.W., Hau, K.T., Artelt, C., Baumert, J. and Peschar, J.L. (2006) ‘OECD’s brief self-report measure of educational psychology’s most useful affective constructs: Cross-cultural, psychometric comparisons across 25 countries’, International Journal of Testing, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 311-360. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327574ijt0604_1
Maslach, C., Jackson, S. E. and Schwab, R. (1996) Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES). Mountain View, CA: CPP.
Maslach, C. and Jackson, S. E. (1981) ‘The measurement of experienced burnout’, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 2, No. 2, 99-113. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.4030020205
Maslach, C. (1993) ‘Burnout: A multidimensional perspective’, in Schaufeli, W. B., Maslach, C. and Marek, T., (eds.) Professional burnout: Recent developments in theory and research, Washington, DC: Taylor and Francis, pp. 19-32.
Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W. B. and Leiter, M. P. (2001). Job burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, Vol. 52, No. 1, pp. 397-422. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.397
Middleton, M. and Midgley, C. (1997) ‘Avoiding the demonstration of lack of ability: An unexplored aspect of goal theory’, Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 89, No. 4, pp. 710-718.
Midgley, C. (ed.) (2002) Goals, Goal Structures, and Patterns of Adaptive Learning. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
McMillan, J. (2013) Classroom assessment: principles and practice for effective standards-based instruction, 6th ed., Boston: Pearson.
Montecinos, C., Madrid, R., Fernández, M. B. and Ahumada, L. (2014) ‘A goal orientation analysis of teachers’ motivations to participate in the school self-assessment processes of a quality assurance system in Chile’, Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 241-261. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11092-014-9190-5
Naidoo, L. J., DeCriscio, A., Bily, H., Manipella, A., Ryan, M. and Youdim, J. (2012) ‘The 2×2 model of goal orientation and burnout: The role of approach–avoidance dimensions in predicting burnout’, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 42, No. 10, pp. 2541-2563. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2012.00952.x
Nicholls, J. G. (1984) ‘Achievement motivation: conceptions of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance’, Psychological Review, Vol. 91, No. 3, pp. 328-346. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.91.3.328
Nitsche, S., Dickhäuser, O., Fasching, M. S. and Dresel, M. (2011) ‘Rethinking teachers’ goal orientations: Conceptual and methodological enhancements’, Learning and Instruction, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 574-586. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2010.12.001
Osborne. J. W. (2013) Best Practices in Data Cleaning, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publication.
Parker, P. D., Martin, A. J., Colmar, S. and Liem, G. A. (2012) ‘Teachers’ workplace well-being: Exploring a process model of goal orientation, coping behavior, engagement, and burnout’, Teaching and Teacher Education, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 503-513. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2012.01.001
Papanastasiou, C. (2002) ‘School, teaching and family ınfluence on student attitudes toward science: based on TIMSS data for Cyprus’, Studies in Eucational Evaluation, Vol. 28, No. 1, 71-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-491X(02)00013-5
Patrick, H., Anderman, L. H., Ryan, A. M., Edelin, K. C. and Midgley, C. (2001) ‘Teachers’ Communication of goal orientations in four fifth-grade classrooms’, The Elementary School Journal, Vol. 102, No. 35-58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/499692
Peeters, M. A. and Rutte, C. G. (2005) ‘Time management behavior as a moderator for the job demand-control interaction’, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 64-75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1076-8922.214.171.124
Pietarinen, J., Pyhältö, K., Soini, T. and Salmela-Aro, K. (2013) ‘Reducing teacher burnout: A socio-contextual approach’, Teaching and Teacher Education, Vol. 35, pp. 62-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2013.05.003
Retelsdorf, J., Butler, R., Streblow, L. and Schiefele, U. (2010) ‘Teachers' goal orientations for teaching: Associations with instructional practices, interest in teaching, and burnout’, Learning and Instruction, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 30-46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2009.01.001
Retelsdorf, J. and Günther, C. (2011) ‘Achievement goals for teaching and teachers’ reference norms: Relations with instructional practices’, Teaching and Teacher Education, Vol. 27, No. 7, pp. 1111-1119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2011.05.007
Rimm-Kaufman, S. E. and Sawyer, B. E. (2004) ‘Primary-grade teachers' self-efficacy beliefs, attitudes toward teaching, and discipline and teaching practice priorities in relation to the" responsive classroom" approach’, The Elementary School Journal, Vol. 104, No. 4, pp. 321-341. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/499756
Runhaar, P., Sanders, K. and Yang, H. (2010) ‘Stimulating teachers' reflection and feedback asking: An interplay of self-efficacy, learning goal orientation, and transformational leadership’, Teaching and Teacher Education, Vol. 26, No. 5, pp. 1154–1161. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2010.02.011
Saban, A. and Yıldızlı, H. (2017) ‘Turkish Primary School Teachers' Goal Orientations for Teaching’, International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 348-355. https://doi.org/10.15345/iojes.2017.02.004
Sarason, S. B. (1977) Work, aging, and social change. New York: Free Press.
Semerci, N., Semerci, Ç. (2004) ‘Attitudes Toward Teaching In Turkish’, Fırat University Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 137-146.
Shen, B., McCaughtry, N., Martin, J., Garn, A., Kulik, N. and Fahlman, M. (2015) ‘The relationship between teacher burnout and student motivation’, British Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 85, no.4, pp. 519-532. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjep.12089
Shim, S. S. and Ryan, A. (2005) ‘Changes in self-efficacy, challenge avoidance, and intrinsic value in response to grades: the role of achievement goals’, Journal of Experimental Education, Vol. 73, No. 4, pp. 333-349. https://doi.org/10.3200/JEXE.73.4.333-349
Shim S. S., Cho, Y. and Cassady, J. C. (2013) ‘Goal structures: The role of teachers’ achievement goals and theories of intelligence’, Journal of Experimental Education, Vol. 81, No. 1, pp. 83-103. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220973.2011.635168
Schaufeli, W. B. and Buunk, B. P. (2003) ‘Burnout: an overview of 25 years of research in theorizing’, in Winnubst, M. J. and Cooper C. L. (eds.) The handbook of work and health psychology, Chichester: Wiley, pp. 383-425.
Schwarzer, R. and Hallum, S. (2008) ‘Perceived teacher self-efficacy as a predictor of job stress and burnout: Mediation analyses’, Applied Psychology, Vol. 57, No. 1, pp. 152-171. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2008.00359.x
Skaalvik, E. M. and Skaalvik, S. (2007) ‘Dimensions of teacher self-efficacy and relations with strain factors, perceived collective teacher efficacy, and teacher burnout’, Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 99, No. 3, pp. 611–625. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06126.96.36.1991
Steele-Johnson, D., Beauregard, R. S., Hoover, P. B. and Schmidt, A. M. (2000) ‘Goal orientation and task demand effects on motivation, affect, and performance’, Journal of Applied psychology, Vol. 85, No. 5, 724-738. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.85.5.724
Tai, D.; Hu, C.;Wang, R.; Chen, J. (2012) ‘What is the impact of teacher self-efficacy on the student learning outcome?’, Proceedings of the 3rd WIETE Annual Conference on Engineering and Technology Education, Pattaya, Thailand, pp. 77–82.
Throndsen, I. and Turmo, A. (2012) ‘Primary mathematics teachers’ goal orientations and student achievement’, Instructional Science, Vol. 41, No. 2, pp. 307-322.
Tönjes, B. and Dickhäuser, O. (2009) ‘Longitudinal effects of goal orientation on factors of occupational burden in the teacher profession’, Zeitschrift für Entwicklungspsychologie und Pädagogische Psychologie, Vol. 41, pp. 79–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1026/0049-86188.8.131.52
Tönjes, B., Dickhäuser, O. and Kröner, S. (2008) ‘Goal orientation and lack of achievement in teachers’, Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 151–160. https://doi.org/10.1024/1010-06184.108.40.206
Tschannen-Moran, M. and Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2001) ‘Teacher efficacy: Capturing an elusive construct’, Teaching and Teacher Education, Vol. 17, No. 7, pp. 783–805. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0742-051X(01)00036-1
Urdan, T., Ryan, A. M., Anderman, E. M. and Gheen, M. H. (2002) ‘Goals, goal structures, and avoidance behaviors’, in C. Midgley (ed.) Goals, goal structures and patterns of adaptive learning, Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, pp. 55– 83.
Üstüner, M. (2006) ‘Reliability And Validity Study Of An Attitude Scale of Teaching Profession’, Educational Administration: Theory and Practice, Vol. 45, No. 45, pp. 109-127.
Wheatley, K. F. (2005) ‘The case for reconceptualizing teacher efficacy research’, Teaching and Teacher Education, Vol. 21, No. 7, pp. 747–766. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2005.05.009
Wolters, C. and Daugherty, S. (2007) ‘Goal structures and teachers’ sense of efficacy: their relation and their association to teaching experience and academic level’, Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 99, No. 1, pp. 181-193. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-06220.127.116.11
Yıldızlı, H., Saban, A. and Baştuğ, M. (2016) ‘Adaptation of Goal Orientations for Teaching Scale into Turkish’, Elementary Education Online, Vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 1254-1267. http://dx.doi.org/10.17051/io.2016.62664
How to Cite
Authors declare with this manuscript intended for publication to ERIES Journal that:
- all co-authors agree with the publication of the manuscript even after amendments arising from peer review;
- all co-authors agree with the posting of the full text of this work on the web page of ERIES Journal and to the inclusion of references in databases accessible on the internet;
- no results of other researchers were used in the submitted manuscript without their consent, proper citation, or acknowledgement of their cooperation or material provided;
- the results (or any part of them) used in the manuscript have not been sent for publication to any other journal nor have they already been published (or if so, that the relevant works are cited in this manuscript);
- submission of the manuscript for publication was completed in accordance with the publishing regulations pertaining to place of work;
- experiments performed comply with current laws and written consent of the Scientific Ethics Committee / National Animal Care Authority (as is mentioned in the manuscript submitted);
- grant holders confirm that they have been informed of the submitted manuscript and they agree to its publication.
Authors retain copyright and grant ERIES Journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the published work with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in ERIES Journal. Moreover, authors are able to post the published work in an institutional repository with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in ERIES Journal. In addition, authors are permitted and encouraged to post the published work online (e.g. institutional repositories or on their website) as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.