Problems Experienced in Classrooms with Students from Different Cultures

Keywords: Culture, foreign student, intercultural education, primary school teacher

Abstract

This study aimed at revealing the problems experienced by primary school teachers in classroom contexts which involve different cultures (Turkish, Iranian, Afghan, and Syrian). Phenomenology design was adopted in the study. The study group was defined through criterion sampling approach. Teachers serving at classrooms involving different cultures and teachers having different professional seniority were included in the study. Nine primary school teachers in total were interviewed, and the data were collected through open ended semi-structured interview questions. The data were analyzed through content analysis. After analysis of the data, the problems experienced by primary school teachers were gathered under three categories as; 1) problems experienced by themselves as teachers, 2) problems experienced in terms of students, and 3) problems experienced in terms of parents.

References

Abdallah-Pretceille, M. (2006) ‘Interculturalism as a Paradigm for Thinking about Diversity’, Intercultural Education, Vol. 17, No. 5, pp. 475-483. https://doi.org/10.1080/14675980601065764

Aguilar, M. J. C.  (2007) Dealing with intercultural communicative competence in the foreign language classroom, In Soler E. A. and. Jordà M. P. S (Eds.) Intercultural language use and language learning,  pp.59-79, Dordrecht: Springer.

Aktın, K., Karakaya, M., Türk, Z., and Aslan, Y. (2015) ‘Okul Öncesi Dönemde Farklı Kültürlerin Öğretimine Yönelik Uygulamalı Bir Çalışma’, Uluslararası Türk Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, Vol. 4, pp. 258-277.

Arslan, S. (2018) ‘A Probe into the Indicators of Intercultural Communicative Competence in an EFL Self-Study Textbook’, International Online Journal of Education and Teaching (IOJET), Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 150-167.

Aslan, S. (2017) ‘Sosyal Bilgiler Öğretmenlerinin Çokkültürlü Eğitim İle İlgili Görüşlerinin İncelenmesi’, Journal of Kirsehir Education Faculty, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 231-253.

Banks, C. A. M. (2015) ‘Communities, families, and educators working together for school improvement’, In Banks J. A. and Banks C. A. M. (Eds.) Multicultural education: Issues and perspectives, Vol. 7, pp. 417-438, Wiley.

Banks, J. A. (2009) ‘Multicultural Education: Dimensions and Paradigms’, In The Routledge international companion to multicultural education, pp. 29-52, New York: Routledge.

Başbay, A., and Bektaş, Y. (2010) ‘Çokkültürlülük Bağlamında Öğretim Ortamı ve Öğretmen Yeterlikleri’, Eğitim ve Bilim, Vol. 34, No. 152, pp. 30-43.

Belz, J. A. (2002) ‘Social Dimensions of Telecollaborative Language Study’, Language Learning and Technology, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 60-81. http://dx.doi.org/10125/25143

Byram, M. (1997) Teaching and assessing intercultural communicative competence, Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Byram, M., Gribkova, B., and Starkey, H. (2002) Developing the intercultural dimension in language teaching: a practical introduction for teachers, Strasbourg: Council of Europe, Language Policy Division.

Chen, G. M., and Starosta, W. J. (1996) ‘Intercultural Communication Competence: A Synthesis’, Annals of the International Communication Association, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 353-383. https://doi.org/10.1080/23808985.1996.11678935

Chval, K. B., and Chávez, Ó. (2012) ‘Designing math lessons for English language learners’, Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, Vol. 17, No. 5, pp. 261-265. https://doi.org/10.5951/mathteacmiddscho.17.5.0261

Clewell, B. C., and Villegas, A. M. (2001). Ahead of the class: A handbook for preparing new teachers from new sources. design lessons from the dewitt wallace-reader's digest fund's pathways to teaching careers ınitiative. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

Creswell, J. W. (2007) Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches, 2nd edition, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Cushner, K., McClelland, A., and Safford, P. (2009) Human diversity in education: An integrative approach, 6th edition, Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Deardorff, D. K. (2006) ‘Identification and Assessment of Intercultural Competence as a Student Outcome of Internationalization’, Journal of Studies in International Education, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 241–266. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315306287002

Deardorff, D. K. (2011) Intercultural Competence in Foreign Language Classroom: A Framework and Implication for Educators, In Witte A. and Harden T. (Eds.) Intercultural Competence: Concepts, Challenges, Evaluations, pp. 37-54, Oxford: Peter Lang.

DomNwachukwu, C. S. (2010) An introduction to multicultural education: From theory to practice, Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Elliott, V. (2018) ‘Thinking about the Coding Process in Qualitative Data Analysis’, The Qualitative Report, Vol. 23, No. 11, pp. 2850-2861.

Eryaman, M. Y., Genc, S. Z., and Aktan, E. (2011) Perceptions of the EU and Democratic Values, In Spinthourakis, J. A., Lalor J. and Berg W. (Eds.) Cultural diversity in the classroom, pp. 199-217, Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-531-93494-5

Fantini, A., and Tirmizi, A. (2006) ‘Exploring and assessing intercultural competence’, World Learning Publications. Paper 1.

Gay, G. (2000) Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice, New York: Teachers College Press.

Gay, G. (2002) ‘Preparing for Culturally Responsive Teaching’, Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 53, No. 2, pp. 106-116. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487102053002003

Gay, G. (2016) Çokkültürlü eğitimin önemi, In Ornstein, A. C., Pajak, E. F. and Ornstein, S. B (Eds.) Eğitim programlarında güncel sorunlar, pp. 211-217, Ankara: Pegem Akademi.

Gencer, Z. T. (2011) ‘Çok Kültürlü Toplumlarda İletişim: Divriği Örneği’, Gümüşhane Üniversitesi İletişim Fakültesi Elektronik Dergisi, Vol. 1, pp. 186-205.

Ghanem, C. (2017) ‘Teaching Intercultural Communicative Competence: The Perspective of Foreign Language Graduate Student Instructors’, International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 1-9. https://doi.org/10.20429/ijsotl.2017.110209

Godley, A. J. (2012) ‘Intercultural discourse and communication in education’, In Paulston, C. B., Kiesling, S. F., and Rangel, E. S. (Eds), The handbook of intercultural discourse and communication, pp. 449-475, Chichester: Blackwell Publishing.

Hermans, P. (2002) ‘Intercultural Education in Two Teacher-Training Courses in the North of the Netherlands’, Intercultural Education, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 183-199. https://doi.org/10.1080/14675980220129004

Holmes, P. (2006) ‘Problematising Intercultural Communication Competence in the Pluricultural Classroom: Chinese Students in a New Zealand University’, Language and Intercultural Communication, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 18-34. https://doi.org/10.1080/14708470608668906

Israelsson, A. (2016) Teachers’ perception of the concept of intercultural competence in teaching English, Department of English, Individual Research Project (EN04GY), English Linguistics, Stockholm: Stockholms Universitet.

Kasmer, L. A., and Billings, E. (2017) ‘Teaching Mathematics in Multilingual Classrooms: Developing Intercultural Competence via a Study Abroad Program’, Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 1-17. https://doi.org/10.36366/frontiers.v29i2.389

Kohler, M. (2015), Teachers as Mediators in the Foreign Language Classroom, pp. 175-185, New York: Multilingual Matters.

Koustelini, M. (2011) ‘Multicultural Classrooms: Inclusion without Integration?’, In Spinthourakis, J. A., Lalor J. and Berg W. (Eds.) Cultural diversity in the classroom, pp. 175-185, Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.

Krajewski, S. (2011) ‘Developing Intercultural Competence in Multilingual and Multicultural Student Groups’, Journal of Research in International Education, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 137–153. https://doi.org/10.1177/1475240911408563

Kramsch, C. (1993) Context and culture in language teaching, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lalor, J., and Mulcahy, C. (2011) Curriculum developments in diverse educational contexts: An Irish perspective, In Spinthourakis, J. A., Lalor J. and Berg W. (Eds.) Cultural diversity in the classroom, pp. 95-107, Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.

Liddicoat, A. J. (2002) ‘Static and Dynamic Views of Culture and Intercultural Language Acquisition’, Babel, Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 4-11.

Lustig, M. W., and Koester, J. (2003) Intercultural competence: Interpersonal communication across cultures, Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Manning, M. L., Baruth, L. G., and Lee, G. L. (2017) Multicultural education of children and adolescents, New York: Routledge.

Merriam, S. B. (2013) Qualitative Research: A Guide to Design and Implementation, New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Mewborn, D. S. (2000) ‘Learning to Teach Elementary Mathematics: Ecological Elements of a Field Experience’, Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 27-46. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009925728974

Mirici, İ. H. (2015) ‘European Policy and Practices in Training Foreign Language Teachers’, H. U. Journal of Education, Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 42-51.

Moran, P. R., and Lu, Z. (2001) Teaching culture: Perspectives in practice, Boston: Heinle & Heinle.

Müller-Hartmann, A., and Schocker, M. (2013) ‘Developing Teachers’ Intercultural Communicative Competences for Task-Supported Language Classrooms’, Flul, Vol. 42, No. 2, pp. 85-98.

Nadeem, M. U., Mohammed, R., and Dalib, S. (2017) ‘A Proposed Model of Intercultural Communication Competence (ICC) In Malaysian Context’, International Journal of Educational Research Review, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 11-20. https://doi.org/10.24331/ijere.327470

Nieto, S. (2009) Multicultural education in the United States: Historical realities, ongoing challenges, and transformative possibilities, In Banks, J. A. (Ed.) The Routledge international companion to multicultural education, pp. 99-115, New York: Routledge.

Ogletree, Q., and Larke, P. J. (2010) ‘Implementing Multicultural Practices in Early Childhood Education’, National Forum of Multicultural Issues Journal, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 1-9.

Reid, E. (2015) ‘Techniques Developing Intercultural Communicative Competences in English Language Lessons’, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 186, pp. 939 – 943. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.04.011

Ries, F., Cabrera, C. Y., and Carriedo, R. G. (2016) ‘A Study of Teacher Training in the United States and Europe’, The European Journal of Social and Behavioural Sciences (EJBS), Vol. 16, pp. 2029-2054. https://doi.org/10.15405/ejsbs.184

Sinagatullin, I. M. (2003) Constructing multicultural education in a diverse society, Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press.

Smalley, S. W., and Retallick, M. S. (2011) ‘Purposes, Activities, and Documentation of Early Field Experiences in Agricultural Education: A National Delphi Study’, Journal of Agricultural Education, Vol. 52, No. 3, pp. 100-109. https://dx.doi.org/10.5032/jae.2011.03100

Spinthourakis, J. A. (2006) ‘Developing Multicultural Competence through Intercultural Sensitivity’, International Journal of Migration Studies. Studi Emigrazione/Migration Studies, Vol. 43, No. 163, pp. 641-656.

Spinthourakis, J. A., and Karakatsanis, D. (2011) The multicultural class in Greece, In Spinthourakis, J. A., Lalor J. and Berg W. (Eds.) Cultural diversity in the classroom, pp. 45-61, Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.

Şentürk, B., and Mirici, İ. H. (2019) ‘Does the ELP Promote Learning English as a Foreign Language at Tertiary Level?’, Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 695-718. https://dx.doi.org/10.17263/jlls.586815

Williams, R. (2014) Keywords: A vocabulary of culture and society, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Yıldırım, A., and Şimşek, H. (2013) Sosyal bilimlerde nitel araştırma yöntemleri, 9th edition. Ankara: Seçkin Yayıncılık.

Yüce, E. (2019) ‘EPOSTL: Revisiting the Roles of Language Teachers at a Recently Established ELT Department’, International Online Journal of Education and Teaching (IOJET), Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 234-243.

Zimmermann, S. (1995) ‘Perceptions of Intercultural Communication Competence and International Student Adaptation to An American Campus’, Communication Education, Vol. 44, No. 4, pp. 321-335. https://doi.org/10.1080/03634529509379022

Published
2020-06-30
How to Cite
Sarı, M. H. and Yüce, E. (2020) ’Problems Experienced in Classrooms with Students from Different Cultures’, Journal on Efficiency and Responsibility in Education and Science, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 90-100 https://doi.org/10.7160/eriesj.2020.130204.
Section
Research Paper