Inefficiency Among Non-Academic Staffs in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions: the Role of Training and Development
Inefficiency has been a major issue battling the service delivery of non-academic staff in most public universities in Nigeria and this has greatly affected the academic and research outlook of Nigerian universities. Interest in the study was to determine the extent to which induction, demonstration, on-the-job and formal training which are all elements of employee training and development enhance managerial efficiency by looking at employee productivity and quality of service delivery. The study adopts a convenience and stratified sampling technique to select 293 non-academic staffs in selected public universities in Nigeria and the analysis was carried out using the structural equation model (SEM). The results revealed that on-the-job training has a significant negative relationship with the quality of service delivery in Nigerian universities (t=-4.454), (p<0.05) and β=-0.20) which could be because most Nigerian universities do not deliberately place new employees to learn directly from a current employee in order to improve their performance. Hence, the study demonstrates that the only way to resolve inefficiency among non-academic (administrative) staff in public tertiary institutions is to integrate effective training into employee career management and adopt employee performance evaluation process as contained in the private organizations.
Abdullah, Z., Ahsan, N. and Alam, S. S. (2009) ‘The Effect of Human Resource Management Practices on Business Performance among Private Companies in Malaysia’, International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 4, No. 6, pp. 65-78. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v4n6p65
Abeba, M. A., Mesele, D. A. and Lemessa, B. (2015) ‘The Impact of Training and Development on Employee Performance and Effectiveness: A case study of District Five Administration Office, Bole Sub-City, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia’, Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 188-202. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jhrss.2015.34025
Amin, M., Khairuzzaman Wan Ismail, W., Zaleha Abdul Rasid, S. and Daverson Andrew Selemani, R. (2014) ‘The impact of human resource management practices on performance: Evidence from a Public University’, The TQM Journal, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 125-142. https://doi.org/10.1108/TQM-10-2011-0062
Armstrong, M. (2009) Armstrong’s Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, 11th edition, London: Kogan Page Limited.
Bagozzi, R. P., and Yi, Y. (2012) ‘Specification, Evaluation, and Interpretation of Structural Equation Models’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 40, No. 1, pp. 8–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11747-011-0278-x
Bandalos, D. L., and Finney, S. J. (2010) ‘Factor Analysis: Exploratory and Confirmatory’, in G. R. Hancock and R. O. Mueller (Eds.), The reviewer's guide to quantitative methods in the social sciences, pp. 93-114, New York, NY: Routledge.
Barney, J. (1991) ‘Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage’, Journal of Management, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 99-120. https://doi.org/10.1177/014920639101700108
Barzegar, N. and Farjad, S. (2011) ‘A study on the Impact of on the Job Training Courses on the Staff Performance (a case study)’, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 29, pp. 1942-1949. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.11.444
Bassey, B. A., Owan, V. J. and Agunwa, J. N. (2019) ‘Quality Assurance Practices and Students’ Performance Evaluation in Universities of South-South Nigeria: a Structural Equation Modelling Approach’, British Journal of Psychological Research, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 1-13.
Beavers, A. S., Lounsbury, J. W., Richards, J. K., Huck, W. S., Skolits, G. J., and Esquivel, S. L. (2013) ‘Practical Considerations for using Exploratory Factor Analysis in Educational Research’. Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation, Vol. 18 No. 6, pp. 1-13. https://doi.org/10.7275/qv2q-rk76
Buuri, D.W. (2015) Performance Measurement Practices and Employee Productivity in the Insurance Firms in Kenya, [Thesis], School of Business University of Nairobi.
Chen, S.-H., Wang, H. H. and Yang, K.J. (2009) ‘Establishment and Application of Performance Measure Indicators for Universities’, The TQM Journal, Vol. 21, No.3, pp. 220-235. https://doi.org/10.1108/17542730910953004
Chinomona, R., Lin, J. Y.-C., Wang, M. C. H., and Cheng, J. M. S. (2010) ‘Soft Power and Desirable Relationship Outcomes: The Case of Zimbabwean Distribution Channels’. Journal of African Business, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 182–200. https://doi.org/10.1080/15228916.2010.508997
Dash, S., and Mohapatra, J. (2016) ‘Employee Perception on the Role of HR for Creating and Managing Employer Branding Towards its Brand: An Explorative Study. Prabandhan’: Indian Journal of management. Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 10-25. https://doi.org/10.17010/pijom/2016/v9i2/87242
Demo, G., Neiva, E. R., Nunes, I., and Rozzett, K. (2012) ‘Human Resources Management Policies and Practices Scale (HRMPPS): Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis’. Brazillian Administration Review, Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 395-420.
Dialoke, I., Adighije, P., and Nkechi, J. (2017) ‘Effects of Career Growth on Employees Performance: A Study of Non-Academic Staff of Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike Abia State, Nigeria’, Singaporean Journal of Business Economics, and Management Studies, Vol. 5, No. 7, pp. 8-18.
Diefendorff, J. M., Richard, E. M., Dinh, P. V., and LeNoble, C. (2018) ‘Action-State Orientation at Work: Dynamic Effects in Organizational Contexts’, in N. Baumann, M. Kazén, M. Quirin, and S. L. Koole (eds.) Why people do the things they do: Building on Julius Kuhl’s Contributions to the Psychology of Motivation and Volition, p. 303-321, Boston, MA: Hogrefe Publishing.
Emeti, C. I. (2015) ‘The Effects of Training/Development on the Performance of Paint Manufacturing Firms in Rivers State’, European Journal of Business and Social Sciences. Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 66-74.
Engetou, E. (2017) The Impact of Training and Development on Organizational Performance. Case Study, National Financial Credit Bank Kumba, [Thesis], Centria University of Applied Sciences Business Management, Unpublished.
Ezeani, N. E, and Oladele, R. (2013) ‘Implications of Training and Development Programmes on Accountant’s Productivity in Selected Business Organisations in Onitsha, Anambra State, Nigeria’, International Journal of Asian Social Science, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 266-281.
Hair, J., Hult, G., Ringle, C., and Sarstedt, M. (2017) A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling PLS-SEM, Los Angeles: SAGE.
Iwuoha, C.C. (2018) ‘Impact of Training and Development Programmes on Secretaries’ Productivity in Selected Business Organisations in Owerri, Imo state, Nigeria’, Journal of School of Business and Management and Technology, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 106-110.
Khan, M.A. (2010) ‘Effects of Human Resource Management Practices on Organizational Performance – An Empirical Study of Oil and Gas Industry in Pakistan’, European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences, Vol. 24, pp. 157-175.
Lee, F. H., Lee, F. Z., and Wu, W. Y. (2010) ‘The Relationship between Human Resource Management Practices, Business Strategy and Firm Performance: Evidence from Steel Industry in Taiwan’, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 21, No. 9, pp. 1351-1372. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2010.488428
Leitão, J., Pereira, D. and Gonçalves, A. (2019) ‘Quality of Work Life and Organizational Performance: Workers’ Feelings of Contributing, or Not, to the Organization’s Productivity’, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. Vol. 16, No. 20, pp. 3803. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16203803
Mackelprang, A.W., Jayaram, J. and Xu, K. (2012) ‘The Influence of Types of Training on Service System Performance in Mass Service and Service Shop Operations’, International Journal of Production Economics, Vol. 138, No. 1, pp. 183-194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2012.03.022
Matsunaga, M. (2010) ‘How to Factor-Analyze Your Data Right: Do’s, Don’ts, and How-To’s’. International Journal of Psychological Research, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 98-111.
Mathis, R. L., and Jackson, J. H. (2011) Human Resource Management, 14th edition, Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
McDowall, A. and Saunders, M. N. K. (2010) ‘UK Manager’s Conceptions of Training and Development’, Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol. 34, No. 7, pp. 609-630. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090591011070752
Mungathia, F. M. (2019) ‘The Challenges Encountered by the Selected Private Universities in Kenya in Implementing Strategies that would lead to a Financially Sustainable University’, British Journal of Education, Vol. 6, No. 6, pp. 49-64.
Moulik, S. R., and Mazumdar, S. (2012) ‘Exploring the Relationship between Perceived uses of Appraisal Satisfaction in the Indian IT Sector: An Empirical Study’, International Journal of Business and Social Research, Vol. 2, No. 5, pp. 63-76. http://dx.doi.org/10.18533/ijbsr.v2i5.222
Ndibe, B. C. (2014) Effect of Employees Training on Organisational Performance in Soft Drinks Bottling Companies in Enugu State, Nigeria. Faculty of Business Administration, [Thesis], University of Nigeria Enugu Campus, Unpublished.
Ng’ethe, J. M., Iravo, M. E., and Namusonge, G. S. (2012) ‘Determinants of Academic Staff Retention in Public Universities in Kenya: Empirical Review’, International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 205-212
Niazi, A.S. (2011) ‘Training and Development Strategy and its Role in Organizational Performance’, Journal of Public Administration and Governance. Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 42-57. https://doi.org/10.5296/jpag.v1i2.862
Nunnally, J. C. (1978) Psychometric Theory, 1st edition, New York: McGraw Hill.
Nusair, K., and Hua, N. (2010) ‘Comparative Assessment of Structural Equation Modeling and Multiple Regression Research Methodologies: E-commerce Context’, Tourism Management, Vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 314–324. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2009.03.010
Obeidat, B. Y., Masa’deh, R., and Abdallah, A. B. (2014) ‘The Relationships among Human Resource Management Practices, Organizational Commitment, and Knowledge Management Processes: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach’, International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 9-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v9n3p9
Obi-Anike, H. O, and Ekwe, M.C. (2014) ‘Impact of Training and Development on Organizational Effectiveness: Evidence from Selected Public Sector Organisations in Nigeria’, European Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 6, No. 29, pp. 66-75.
Odhiambo, J. O., Njanja, L and Zakayo, C (2014) ‘Effects of Succession Planning Practices on Organization Performance among the Non-Governmental Organizations in Kenya’, European Journal of Business Management, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 141-154.
Olusanya, S. O., Awotungase, S. A., and Ohadebere, E. C. (2012) ‘Training and Development, a Vital Tool for Organisational Effectiveness’, Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 48- 57. http://dx.doi.org/10.9790/487X-0624857
Oyeniyi, O. I. (2011) ‘Human Resource Management in Nigerian Universities’, [Thesis], Faculty of Education, Delta State University, Abraka, Unpublished.
Orçan, F., and Yang, Y. (2016) ‘A note on the use of Item Parceling in Structural Equation Modeling with Missing Data’, Journal of Measurement and Evaluation in Education and Psychology, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 59-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.21031/epod.88204
Papa, A., Dezi, L., Gregori, G., Mueller, J. and Miglietta, N. (2018) ‘Improving Innovation Performance through Knowledge Acquisition: the Moderating Role of Employee Retention and Human Resource Management Practices’, Journal of Knowledge Management, https://doi.org/10.1108/JKM-09-2017-0391
Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. and Berry, L. (1986) SERVQUAL: A Multiple-Item Scale for Measuring Consumer Perceptions of Service Quality, Report No. 86-108, Cambridge, MA: Marketing Science Institute.
Qureshi, M. T., Ayisha, A., Mohammad, A. K., Rauf, A. S. and Syed, T. H. (2010) ‘Do Human Resource Management Practices Have an Impact on Financial Performance of Banks?’, African Journal of Business Management, Vol. 4, No. 7, pp. 1281-1288.
Raja, A. G., and Furqan, A. K., Muhammad, A. K. (2011) ‘Impact of Training and Development on Organisational Performance’, Global Journal of Management and Business Research, Vol. 11, No. 7, pp.45-62.
Rizov, M. and Croucher, R. (2009) ‘Human Resource Management and Performance in European Firms’, Cambridge Journal of Economics, Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 253-272. https://doi.org/10.1093/cje/ben037
Samuel, M. O., and Chipunza, C. (2009) ‘Employee Retention and Turnover: Using Motivational Variables as a Panacea’, The African Journal of Business Management. Vol. 3, No. 8, pp. 410- 415. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJBM09.125
Samuel, M. O., and Chipunza, C. (2013) ‘Attrition and Retention of Senior Academics at Institutions of Higher Learning in South Africa: The Strategies, Complexities and Realities’, Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 35, No. 2, pp. 97-109. https://doi.org/10.1080/09718923.2013.11893151
Sivo, S. A., Xitao, F., Witta, E. L., and Willse, J. T. (2006) ‘The Search for “Optimal” Cutoff Properties: Fit Index Criteria in Structural Equation Modeling’, Journal of Experimental Education, Vol. 74, No. 3, pp. 267–288. https://doi.org/10.3200/JEXE.74.3.267-288
Tettey, W. J. (2010) Challenges of Developing and Retaining: The Next Generation of Academics: Deficits in Academic Staff Capacity at African Universities, Alberta Canada: Faculty of Communication and Culture University of Calgary.
Yusuf, N. A., Makera, A. M., and Kamaruddeen, I. M. (2019) ‘Assessing the Impact of Work Environment on Employee Engagement among Non-Academic Staff of the University’, SEISENSE Journal of Management, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 23-40. DOI: https://doi.org/10.33215/sjom.v2i1.84
Copyright (c) 2020 Bimbo Onaolapo Adejare; Gbemi Oladipo Olaore, Ekpenyong Ekpenyong Udofia, Temitayo Bosede Emola
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors declare with this manuscript intended for publication to ERIES Journal that:
- all co-authors agree with the publication of the manuscript even after amendments arising from peer review;
- all co-authors agree with the posting of the full text of this work on the web page of ERIES Journal and to the inclusion of references in databases accessible on the internet;
- no results of other researchers were used in the submitted manuscript without their consent, proper citation, or acknowledgement of their cooperation or material provided;
- the results (or any part of them) used in the manuscript have not been sent for publication to any other journal nor have they already been published (or if so, that the relevant works are cited in this manuscript);
- submission of the manuscript for publication was completed in accordance with the publishing regulations pertaining to place of work;
- experiments performed comply with current laws and written consent of the Scientific Ethics Committee / National Animal Care Authority (as is mentioned in the manuscript submitted);
- grant holders confirm that they have been informed of the submitted manuscript and they agree to its publication.
Authors retain copyright and grant ERIES Journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the published work with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in ERIES Journal. Moreover, authors are able to post the published work in an institutional repository with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in ERIES Journal. In addition, authors are permitted and encouraged to post the published work online (e.g. institutional repositories or on their website) as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.