From F2F to ERT: University Students’ Perception of Remote Learning During the First COVID-19 Lockdown


  • Katerina Dvorakova University of South Bohemia
  • Jaroslav Emmer University of South Bohemia
  • Renata Janktová University of South Bohemia
  • Kateřina Klementová University of South Bohemia



ERT (emergency remote teaching), F2F (face-to-face) instruction, online learning, student satisfaction, university education


In the spring of 2020, the University of South Bohemia was one of the innumerable higher education institutions which was obliged to move its instruction online in order to comply with the COVID-19 regulations. This article explores the evaluation of emergency remote teaching (ERT) measures taken by the English department from the perspective of its students. It presents and discusses findings gathered from a questionnaire completed by 99 respondents. The questionnaire centres around four areas of interest: satisfaction with ERT, comparison of face-to-face (F2F) vs. online learning experiences, perceived stress level during ERT, and acquisition of skills. The results show how students responded to the emergency procedures and which factors they considered essential in terms of satisfaction and stress. Furthermore, they reveal thought-provoking insights on aspects such as integrating elements of online teaching into F2F instruction, developing various skills in lockdown, and motivation for learning. Our findings are analysed in terms of aspects and factors which are viewed as efficient or inefficient by students in a time of crisis. Thus, this research may contribute not only to better preparedness should circumstances requiring ERT return, but also to a more complex re-evaluation of instructional approach at university level.


Allen, M., Omori, K., Cole, A. W. and Burrell, N. (2019) ‘Distance Learning and Student Satisfaction’, In Moore, M. G. and Diehl, W. C. (eds.) Handbook of Distance Education, (pp. 122–132), 4th edition, New York and London: Routledge.

Ally, M. (2008) ‘Foundations of Educational Theory for Online Learning’, In Anderson, T. (ed.) The Theory and Practice of Online Learning, (pp. 15–44), 2nd edition, Edmonton: AU Press, Athabasca University.

Bolliger, D. U. and Martindale, T. (2004) ‘Key Factors for Determining Student Satisfaction in Online Courses’, International Journal on E-Learning, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 61–67.

Bork, R. H. and Rucks-Ahidiana, Z. (2013) ‘Role Ambiguity in Online Courses: An Analysis of Student and Instructor Expectations’, CCRC Working Paper No. 64, New York: Community College Research Center, Columbia University. Available: [25 Aug 2020].

Bozkurt, A. and Sharma, R. C. (2020) ‘Emergency Remote Teaching in a Time of Global Crisis Due to Corona Virus Pandemic’, Asian Journal of Distance Education, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. i–vi.

Buunk, A. P. and Gibbons, F. X. (2005) ‘Social Comparison Orientation: A New Perspective on Those Who Do and Those Who Don’t Compare with Others’, In Guimond, S. (ed.) Social Comparison and Social Psychology: Understanding Cognition, Intergroup Relations and Culture, (pp. 15–32), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Civitci, N. and Civitci, A. (2015) ‘Social Comparison Orientation, Hardiness and Life Satisfaction in Undergraduate Students’, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 205, pp. 516–523.

Cleveland-Innes, M., Garrison, R. D. and Vaughan, N. (2019) ‘The Community of Inquiry Theoretical Framework’, In Moore, M. G. and Diehl, W. C. (eds.) Handbook of Distance Education, (pp. 67–78), 4th edition, New York and London: Routledge.

Cole, M. T., Shelley, D. J. and Swartz, L. B. (2014) ‘Online Instruction, E-Learning, and Student Satisfaction: A Three Year Study’, International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, Vol. 15, No. 6, pp. 111–131.

Conrad, D. and Openo, J. (2018) Assessment Strategies for Online Learning: Engagement and Authenticity, Edmonton, AB: AU Press.

Gross, K. (2020) ‘Can Online Learning Be Trauma-Responsive?’, New England Board of Higher Education, [Online], Available: [28 Aug 2020].

Harvard University (2020) Best Practices: Online Pedagogy, [Online], Available: [25 Aug 2020].

Hidi, S. and Harackiewicz, J. M. (2000) ‘Motivating the Academically Unmotivated: A Critical Issue for the 21st Century’, Review of Educational Research, Vol. 70, No. 2, pp. 151–179.

Hidi, S. and Renninger, K. A. (2006) ‘The Four-Phase Model of Interest Development’, Educational Psychologist, Vol. 41, No. 2, pp. 111–127.

Hodges, C. B., Moore, S., Lockee, B. B., Trust, T. and Bond, M. A. (2020) ‘The Difference Between Emergency Remote Teaching and Online Learning’, EDUCAUSE Review, [Online] Available: [11 Sep 2020].

Horzum, M. B. (2015) ‘Interaction, Structure, Social Presence, and Satisfaction in Online Learning’, Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 505–512.

Hurst, B., Wallace, R. and Nixon, S. B. (2013) ‘The Impact of Social Interaction on Student Learning’, Reading Horizons: A Journal of Literacy and Language Arts, Vol. 52, No. 4, pp. 375–398.

Jindrová, A., Vostrá Vydrová, H. and Dömeová, L. (2013) ‘The Students ́ Evaluation of the E-Support in the Full Time Form of Study’, Journal on Efficiency and Responsibility in Education and Science, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 119–133.

Koller, D. (2012) ‘What We're Learning From Online Education’, [Video file], TED, Available: [14 Jul 2020].

Kuo, Y.-C., Walker, A., Belland, B. R. and Schroder, K. E. E. (2013) ‘A Predictive Study of Student Satisfaction in Online Education Programs’, The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 16–39.

Muilenburg, L. Y. and Berge, Z. L. (2005) ‘Student Barriers to Online Learning: A Factor Analytic Study’, Distance Education, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 29–48.

Newman, T. and Beetham, H. (2017) ‘Student Digital Experience Tracker 2017: The Voice of 22,000 UK Learners’, Jics, [Online], Available at: [28 Aug 2020].

Parkes, M., Reading, C. and Stein, S. (2015) ‘Student Preparedness for University E-Learning Environments’, The Internet and Higher Education, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 1–10.

Quintana, R. and Quintana, C. (2020) ‘When Classroom Interactions Have to Go Online: The Move to Specifications Grading in a Project-Based Design Course’, Information and Learning Sciences, Vol. 121, No. 7/8, pp. 525–532.

Saadé, R. G., Kira, D., Mak, T. and Nebebe, F. (2017) ‘Anxiety and Performance in Online Learning’, Proceedings of the Informing Science and Information Technology Education Conference, Vietnam, pp. 147–157. Santa Rosa, CA: Informing Science Institute. Available: [25 Aug 2020].

Shapiro, H. B., Lee, C. H., Wyman Roth, N. E., Li, K., Çetinkaya-Rundel, M. and Canelas, D. A. (2017) ‘Understanding the Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) Student Experience: An Examination of Attitudes, Motivations, and Barriers’, Computers & Education, Vol. 110, pp. 35–50.

Sheridan, K. and Kelly, M. A. (2010) ‘The Indicators of Instructor Presence That Are Important to Students in Online Courses’, Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, Vol. 6, No. 4.

Schunk, D. H. (1989) ‘Self-Efficacy and Achievement Behaviors’, Educational Psychology Review, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 173–208.

Stufflebeam, D. and Zhang, G. (2017) The CIPP Evaluation Model, New York: Guilford Publications.

Sun, P.-C., Tsai, R. J., Finger, G., Chen, Y.-Y. and Yeh, D. (2008) ‘What Drives a Successful E-Learning? An Empirical Investigation of the Critical Factors Influencing Learner Satisfaction’, Computers & Education, Vol. 50, No. 4, pp. 1183–1220.

Vayre, E. and Vonthron, A.-M. (2019) ‘Relational and Psychological Factors Affecting Exam Participation and Student Achievement in Online College Courses’, The Internet and Higher Education, Vol. 43, 100671. (2020) The History of Online Schooling, [Online], Available: [15 Sep 2020].

Wentzel, K. R. and Brophy, J. E. (2014) Motivating Students to Learn, New York & London: Routledge.

White, J. B., Langer, E. J., Yariv, L. and Welch IV, J. C. (2006) ‘Frequent Social Comparisons and Destructive Emotions and Behaviors: The Dark Side of Social Comparisons’, Journal of Adult Development, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 36–44.

Whittle, C., Tiwari, S., Yan, S. and Williams, J. (2020) ‘Emergency Remote Teaching Environment: A Conceptual Framework for Responsive Online Teaching in Crises’, Information and Learning Sciences, Vol. 121, No. 5/6, pp. 311–319.

Zimmerman, B. J. (2000) ‘Self-Efficacy: An Essential Motive to Learn’, Contemporary Educational Psychology, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 82–91.

Additional Files



How to Cite

Dvorakova, K., Emmer, J., Janktová, R. . and Klementová, K. (2021) ’From F2F to ERT: University Students’ Perception of Remote Learning During the First COVID-19 Lockdown’, Journal on Efficiency and Responsibility in Education and Science, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 89–100



Research Paper