Promoting Effects of Abilities While Enhancing Probability of College-Success: A Moderation Role of Higher Education




College Readiness; College Success; Higher Education Quality


Studies revealed that college readiness promotes college success and higher education student learning outcomes. This study opted to 1) analyze the total effect and the conditional effect of college readiness on college success by university generations and departments; 2) analyze the differences in the probability of college success across departments and university generations; 3) describe the quality of university generations in terms of the conditional effects and the probabilities of college success. The study is an ex post facto research. The Ethiopian 1st, 2nd, and 3rd generation universities; and the Ethiopian National Assessment and Evaluation Agency officers were the population of the study. The total sample size was 551. The Ethiopian General Education School Leaving Certificate Examination Grade Point Average, the Ethiopian Higher Education Entrance Examination score, and the College Cumulative Grade Point Average of the students were sources of the data. Using the Process Procedure for Software Package for Social Sciences, the binomial logistic regression was conducted. Maintaining the highest total conditional effect of college readiness on college success while heightening the probability of college success at a value of college readiness has been interpreted as a trait of the high performing university generation.


Allensworth, E. M. and Clark, K. (2020) ‘High School GPAs and ACT Scores as Predictors of College Completion: Examining Assumptions About Consistency Across High Schools’, Educational Researcher, Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 198–211.

Alonzo, D., Mirriahi, N. and Davison, C. (2019) ‘The Standards for Academics’ Standards-Based Assessment Practices’, Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, Vol. 44, No. 4, pp. 636 – 652.

Al-Twijri M. I. and Noaman A. Y. (2015) ‘A New Data Mining Model Adopted for Higher Institutions’, Procedia Computer Science, Vol. 65, pp. 836–844.

Arnold, J. C. (2018) ‘An Integrated Model of Decision-Making in Health Contexts: The Role of Science Education in Health Education’, International Journal of Science Education, Vol. 40, No. 5, pp. 519–537.

Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., Irvine, C. K. and Walker, D. (2018) Introduction to Research in Education, Boston: Cengage.

Atkinson, R. C. and Geiser, S. (2009) ‘Reflections on a Century of College Admission Tests’, Educational Researcher, Vol. 38, No. 9, pp. 665–676.

Balfanz, R. and Byrnes, V. (2019) ‘Early Warning Indicators and Intervention Systems: State of the Field’, in Fredricks, J. A., Reschly, A. L. and Christenson, S. L. (ed.) Handbook of student engagement interventions, Vol. 1, London: Academic Press.

Baron, J. (2004) ‘Normative Models of Judgment and Decision Making’, in Koehler, D. J., and Harvey, N. (ed.) Blackwell handbook of judgment and decision making, London: Blackwell.

Ben-Shakhar, G., Kiderman, I. and Beller, M. (1996) ‘Comparing the Utility of Two Procedures for Admitting Students to Liberal Arts: An Application of Decision-Theoretic Models’, Educational and Psychological Measurement, Vol. 56, No. 1, pp. 90–107.

Boud, D. (2017) ‘Standards-Based Assessment for an Era of Increasing Transparency’, in Carless, D., Bridges, S., Chan, C. and Glofcheski, R. (ed.) Scaling up Assessment for learning in higher education: The enabling power of assessment, Singapore: Springer.

Bridges, S.M., Wyatt-Smith, C.M., and Botelho, M.G. (2017) ‘Clinical Assessment Judgments and ‘Connoisseurship’: Surfacing Curriculum-Wide Standards Through Transdisciplinary Dialogue’, in Carless, D., Bridges, S., Chan, C. and Glofcheski, R. (ed.) Scaling up assessment for learning in higher education. The enabling power of assessment, Singapore: Springer.

Brown, M., McNamara, G. and O'Hara, J. (2016) ‘Quality and the Rise of Value-Added in Education: The Case of Ireland’, Policy Futures in Education, Vol. 14, No. 6, pp. 810–829.

Callahan, R. M. and Hopkins, M. (2017) ‘Policy Brief: Using ESSA to Improve Secondary English Learners’ Opportunities to Learn through Course Taking’, Journal of School Leadership, Vol. 27, No. 5, pp. 755–766.

Čechová, I., Neubauer J. and Sedlačík, M. (2019) ‘Tracking the University Student Success: Statistical Quality Assessment’, Journal on Efficiency and Responsibility in Education and Science, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 12–25.

Cho, K. W. and Serrano, D. M. (2020) ‘Noncognitive Predictors of Academic Achievement Among Nontraditional and Traditional Ethnically Diverse College Students’, The Journal of Continuing Higher Education, Vol. 68, No. 3, pp. 190–206.

Coates, H. (2009) ‘What's the Difference? A Model for Measuring the Value Added by Higher Education in Australia’, Higher Education Management and Policy, Vol. 21, No.1, pp. 1–20.

Cohen, L., Manion, L. and Morrison, K. (2018) Research methods in education, 8th edition, New York: Routledge.

Creswell, J. W. (2014) Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches, Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Cunha, J. M. and Miller, T. (2014) ‘Measuring Value-added in Higher Education: Possibilities and Limitations in the Use of Administrative Data’, Economics of Education Review, Vol. 42, pp. 64–77.

Davidson, J. C. (2015) ‘Precollege Factors and Leading Indicators: Increasing Transfer and Degree Completion in a Community and Technical College System’, Community College Journal of Research and Practice, Vol. 39, No. 11, pp. 1007–1021.

Ďurišová, M., Kucharčíková, A. and Tokarčíková, E. (2015) ‘Assessment of Higher Education Teaching Outcomes (Quality of Higher Education)’, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 174, pp. 2497–2502.

Edmonds, W. A. and Kennedy, T. D. (2018) An applied guide to research designs: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods, Los Angeles: Sage.

Elqayam, S., and Evans, J. S. B. T. (2011) ‘Subtracting “ought” from “is”: Descriptivism versus normativism in the study of human thinking’, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Vol. 34, No. 5, pp. 233–248.

Fennie, T., Mayman, Y., van Louw, C., Useh, E. and Kombora, M. (2020) ‘Psychosocial Factors Impacting the College Adjustment of Undergraduate Students: A Scoping Review’, Journal of Psychology in Africa, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 105–96.

Field, A. (2018) Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics, London : Sage.

Fina, A. D., Dunbar, S. B. and Welch, C. J. (2018) ‘Establishing Empirical Links between High School Assessments and College Outcomes: An Essential Requirement for College Readiness Interpretations’, Educational Assessment, Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 157–172.

Galla, B. M., Shulman, E. P., Plummer, B. D., Gardner, M., Hutt, S. J., Goyer, J. P., D’Mello, S. K., Finn, A. S. and Duckworth, A. L. (2019) ‘Why High School Grades are Better Predictors of On-Time College Graduation than are Admissions Test Scores: The Roles of Self-Regulation and Cognitive Ability’, American Educational Research Journal, Vol. 56, No.6, pp. 2077–2115.

González Canché, M. S. (2019) ‘Repurposing Standardized Testing for Educational Equity: Can Geographical Bias and Adversity Scores Expand True College Access?’, Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 225–235.

G-power for Windows, Version (2020) Germany: Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf. [software]

Gray, G., Mcguinness, C. and Owende, P. (2016) ‘Non-Cognitive Factors of Learning as Early Indicators of Students at-Risk of Failing in Tertiary Education’, in Khine, M. S. and Areepattamannil, S. (ed.) Non-cognitive skills and factors in educational attainment: Contemporary approaches to research in learning innovations, Rotterdam: SensePublishers.

Hrnčiar, M. and Madzík, P. (2015) ‘A 3D View of Issues of Quality in Higher Education’, Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, Vol. 28, No. 5–6, pp. 633–662.

Hsieh, F. Y., Bloch, D. A. and Larsen, M. D. (1998) ‘A Simple Method of Sample Size Calculation for Linear and Logistic Regression’, Statistics in Medicine, Vol. 17, No. 14, pp. 1623-1634.<1623::aid-sim871>;2-s

Hsieh, T. (2019) ‘A Preliminary Study of Multiple College Admission Criteria in Taiwan: The Relationship among Motivation, Standardized Tests, High School Achievements, and College Success’, Higher Education Research & Development, Vol. 38, No. 4, pp. 762–779.

Hughes, P. (2006) Secondary education at the crossroads: International perspectives relevant to the Asia-Pacific region, Netherlands: Springer.

Hughes, J. A. and Sharrock, W. W. (1997) The philosophy of social research, UK: Longman.

Jackson, J. and Kurlaender, M. (2014) ‘College Readiness and College Completion at Broad Access Four-Year Institutions’, American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 58, No. 8, pp. 947–971.

Kallison, J. J. (2017) ‘The Effects of an Intensive Postsecondary Transition Program on College Readiness for Adult Learners’, Adult Education Quarterly, Vol. 67, No. 4, pp. 302–321.

Kemple, J., Segeritz, M. D. and Stephenson, N. (2013) ‘Building On-Track Indicators for High School Graduation and College Readiness: Evidence from New York City’, Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 7–28.

Kim, J. S. and Sunderman, G. L. (2005) ‘Measuring Academic Proficiency under the No Child Left Behind Act: Implications for Educational Equity’, Educational Researcher, Vol. 34, No. 8, pp. 313.

Klarin, M. V. (2016)Twenty-First Century Educational Theory and the Challenges of Modern Education: Appealing to the Heritage of the General Teaching Theory of the Secondary Educational Curriculum and the Learning Process’, Russian Education & Society, Vol. 58, No. 4, pp. 299–312.

Kowalski, T. J. (2008) ‘Evidence and Decision Making in Professions’, in Kowalski, T. J. and Lasley, T. J. (ed.) Handbook of Data-Based Decision Making in Education (First edition). New York: Routledge.

Leeds, D. M., and Mokher, C. G. (2019) ‘Improving Indicators of College Readiness: Methods for Optimally Placing Students into Multiple Levels of Postsecondary Coursework’, Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, Vol. 42, No. 1, pp.87–109.

Lehman, N. (1999) The big test: The secret history of the American meritocracy, New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.

Liu, O. L. (2011) ‘Measuring Value‐added in Higher Education: Conditions and Caveats – Results from Using the Measure of Academic Proficiency and Progress (MAPP™)’, Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 81–94.

Lunceford, C., Sondergeld, T. A. and Stretavski, E. L. (2017) ‘A Comparative Case Study of Student Preparation for Postsecondary Education: How GEAR UP, Socioeconomic Status, and Race Influence Academic and Non-academic Factors’, Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk (JESPAR), Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 185 – 199.

March, J. G. (1978) ‘Bounded Rationality, Ambiguity, and the Engineering of Choice’, Bell Journal of Economics, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 587–608.

Martin, L. and Mahat, M. (2017) ‘The Assessment of Learning Outcomes in Australia: Finding the Holy Grail’, AERA Open, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 1–19.

Martín-García, A.V., Martínez-Abad, F., and Reyes-González, D. (2019) ‘TAM and stages of adoption of blended learning in education by application of data mining techniques’, British Educational Research Association, Vol. 50, No. 5, pp. 2484–2500.

McFall, J. P. (2015) ‘Rational, Normative, Descriptive, Prescriptive, or Choice Behavior? The Search for Integrative Metatheory of Decision Making’, Behavioral Development Bulletin, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 45–59.

Means, B., Wang, H., Young, V., Peters, V. and Lynch, S. (2016) ‘STEM-focused High Schools as a Strategy for Enhancing Readiness for Postsecondary STEM Programs’, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Vol. 53, No. 5, pp. 709–736.

Menard, S. (1995) Applied logistic regression analysis. Sage university paper series on quantitative applications in the social sciences, Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Ministry of Education (2009) Ethiopian education and training policy, Addis Ababa: Ministry of Education.

Mokher, C.G. and Leeds, D.M. (2019) ‘Can a College Readiness Intervention Impact Longer-Term College Success? Evidence from Florida’s Statewide Initiative’, The Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 90, No. 4, pp. 585–619.

Nagle, K., Newman, L. A., Shaver, D. M. and Marschark, M. (2016) ‘College and Career Readiness: Course Taking of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Secondary School Students’, American annals of the deaf, Vol. 160, No. 5, pp. 467–482.

NEAEA (2019) NEAEA – Ethiopia National Educational Assessment and Examinations Agency, [online], Available: [22 Mar 2020].

Niu, S. X. and Tienda, M. (2010) ‘The Impact of the Texas Top Ten Percent Law on College Enrollment: A Regression Discontinuity Approach’, Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 84–110.

Noaman, A. Y., Ragab, A. M., Madbouly, A. I., Khedra, A., and Fayoumi, A. (2017) ‘Higher Education Quality Assessment Model: Towards Achieving Educational Quality Standard’, Studies in Higher Education, Vol. 42, No. 1, pp. 23–46.

Olani, A. (2017) ‘Predicting First Year University Students’ Academic Success’, Electronic Journal of Research in Education Psychology, Vol. 7, No. 19., pp. 1053–1072.

Otavová, M., and Sýkorová, I. (2016) ‘Differences in Results Obtained by Students of Different Faculties’, Journal on Efficiency and Responsibility in Education and Science, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 1–6.

Raiffa, H. (1994) ‘The Prescriptive Orientation of Decision Making: A Synthesis of Decision Analysis, Behavioral Decision Making, and Game Theory’, in Ríos, S. (ed.) Decision Theory and Decision Analysis: Trends and Challenges. Dordrecht: Springer.

Rasinski, T. V., Chang, S., Edmondson, E., Nageldinger, J., Nigh, J. L., Remark, L., Kenney, K. S., Walsh-Moorman, E., Yildirim, K., Nichols, W., Paige, D. and Rupley, W. H. (2017) ‘Reading Fluency and College Readiness’, Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, Vol. 60, No. 4, pp. 453–460.

Rattani, S. A. (2016) ‘SAT: Does Racial Bias Exist?’, Creative Education, Vol. 7, No. 15, pp. 2151–2162.

Relles, S. R. (2016) ‘Rethinking Postsecondary Remediation: Exploring an Experiential Learning Approach to College Writing’, The Journal of Continuing Higher Education, Vol. 64, No. 3, pp. 172–180.

Sava, S., Borca, C. and Danciu, L. (2014) ‘Models of Quality Assurance in Evaluation and Validation of Competencies, for an Easier Access to Higher Education’, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 142, pp. 176–182.

Savitz-Romer, M. and Rowan-Kenyon, H.T. (2020) ‘Noncognitive Skills, College Success, and Career Readiness: What Matters and to Whom?’, About Campus: Enriching the Student Learning Experience, vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 4–13.

Sawyer, R. (1996) ‘Decision Theory Models for Validating Course Placement Tests’, Journal of Educational Measurement, Vol. 33, No. 3, pp. 271–290.

Saygin, P. O. (2020) ‘Gender Bias in Standardized Tests: Evidence from A Centralized College Admissions System’, Empirical Economics, Vol. 59, pp. 1037–1065.

Shavelson, R., Domingue, B., Mariño, J. P., Mantilla, A. M., Forero, A. M. and Wiley, E. E. (2016) ‘On the Practices and Challenges of Measuring Higher Education Value Added: The Case of Colombia’, Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, Vol. 41, No. 5, pp. 695–720.

Shewach, O. R., Shen, W., Sackett, P. R. and Kuncel, N. R. (2017) ‘Differential Prediction in the Use of the SAT and High School Grades in Predicting College Performance: Joint Effects of Race and Language’, Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 46-57.

Sønderlund, A. L., Hughes, E. and Smith, J. (2019) ‘The Efficacy of Learning Analytics Interventions in Higher Education: A Systematic Review’, British Journal of Educational Technology, Vol. 50, No. 5, pp. 2594–2618.

Tasopoulou, K. and Tsiotras, G. (2017) ‘Benchmarking Towards Excellence in Higher Education’, Benchmarking: An International Journal, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 617–634.

Tierney, W.G. and Duncheon, J. C. (2015) The Problem of College Readiness, New York: University of New York press.

Trines, S. (2018) Education System Profiles: Education in Ethiopia, [online], Available: [15 Aug 2020].

Tucker, L. and McKnight, O. (2019) ‘Assessing the Validity of College Success Indicators for the At-Risk Student: Toward Developing a Best-Practice Model’, Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 166–183.

Turner, L. A. and Angulo, A. J. (2018) ‘Risky Business: An Integrated Institutional Theory for Understanding High-Risk Decision Making in Higher Education’, Harvard Educational Review, Vol. 88, No. 1, pp. 53–80.

van der Linden, W. J. (1991) ‘Applications of Decision Theory to Test-Based Decision Making’, In: Hambleton, R.K. and Zaal, J.N. (ed.) Advances in educational and psychological testing: theory and applications. Evaluation in education and human services series, vol 28, Dordrecht: Springer.

van der Linden, W.J. (1996) ‘Decision Theory in Educational Testing’, in Keeves, J. P. (ed.) Educational research, methodology and measurement: An international handbook (2nd edition), pp. 725–730, Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Wang, P. (1996) ‘Heuristics and Normative Models of Judgment under Uncertainty’, International Journal of Approximate Reasoning, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 221–235.

Wang, X. (2017) ‘Toward a Holistic Theoretical Model of Momentum for Community College Student Success’, in Paulsen, M. (ed.) Higher education: Handbook of theory and research, Cham: Springer.

Wariyo, L. G. (2020) ‘Higher Education Quality Assessment in Ethiopia: A Comparative Study’, Multidisciplinary Journal for Education, Social and Technological Sciences, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 1–31.

Xu, D., Solanki, S. and Harlow, A. (2020) ‘Examining the Relationship Between 2-year College Entry and Baccalaureate Aspirants’ Academic and Labor Market Outcomes: Impacts, Heterogeneity, and Mechanisms’, Research in Higher Education, Vol. 61, No. 3, pp. 297–329.

Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, O., Pant, H. A. and Coates, H. (2016) ‘Assessing Student Learning Outcomes in Higher Education: Challenges and International Perspectives’, Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, Vol. 41, No. 5, pp. 655–661.

Additional Files



How to Cite

Wariyo, L. and Asgedom, A. (2021) ’Promoting Effects of Abilities While Enhancing Probability of College-Success: A Moderation Role of Higher Education’, Journal on Efficiency and Responsibility in Education and Science, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 101-117



Research Paper