Identifying the Factors Influencing Mathematics Teachers' Grading Practices Regarding Students' In-Class Performance: A Reliability and Validity Study


  • Osman Birgin Usak University, Facuty of Education, Department of Mathmatics Education
  • Murat Yılmaz 100.Yıl Mehmetcik Middle School, Denizli, Türkiye.



Grading, Mathematics, Participation in classroom activities, Performance assessment, Scale development


This study aims to develop a scale to identify the factors influencing mathematics teachers' grading practices regarding students' in-class performance. The study was carried out with 180 secondary and 140 high school mathematics teachers from the southwestern region of Türkiye. The scale’s construct validity was determined using item analysis, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The EFA results showed that the scale consisted of a 5-point Likert-type scale with 36 items under eight factors (mathematical knowledge and skills, social behaviors, affective skills, effort, homework performance, follow-up test results, academic exam results, and external benchmarks). The scale explained 70.02% of the total variance, with factor loadings ranging from 0.50 to 0.92. The item-total correlations ranged from 0.36 to 0.64, and t-test results for the item discrimination index were significant. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the overall scale was calculated to be 0.92. The CFA results indicated that the scale model had a good fit (Chi-square/df = 1.39; RMSEA = 0.051; IFI = 0.98; NNFI = 0.97; CFI= 0.98; and SRMR = 0.062). Based on the findings, the scale is a valid and reliable instrument that may be used in determining the factors influencing mathematics teachers’ grading practices.


Acar-Erdol, T. and Yıldızlı, H. (2018) ‘Classroom assessment practices of teachers in Turkey’, International Journal of Instruction, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 587–602.

Adams, T. L. and Hsu, J.-W. Y. (1998) ‘Classroom assessment: Teachers’ conceptions and practices in mathematics’, School Science and Mathematics, Vol. 98, No. 4, pp. 174–180.

Akcadag, T. (2010) ‘Öğretmenlerin ilköğretim programındaki yöntem teknik, ölçme ve değerlendirme konularına ilişkin eğitim ihtiyaçları [The training needs of teachers concerning methods & techniques and assessment & evaluation in the primary school curriculum]’, Bilig, Vol. 53, pp. 29–50.

Birgin, O. and Baki, A. (2009) ‘An investigation of primary school teachers’ proficiency perceptions about measurement and assessment methods: The case of Turkey’, Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 681–685.

Birgin, O. (2011) ‘Pre-service mathematics teachers' views on the use of portfolios in their education as an alternative assessment method’, Educational Research and Reviews, Vol. 6, No. 11, pp. 710–721.

Birgin, O. and Baki, A. (2012) ‘Investigation of the purposes of the measurement and assessment practice of primary school teachers within the context of the new mathematics curriculum’, Education and Science, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 7–74.

Bennett, R. E. (2011) ‘Formative assessment: A critical review’, Assessment in Education Principles, Policy and Practice, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 5–25.

Black, P. and Wiliam, D. (1998) ‘Assessment and classroom learning’, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 7–74.

Brookhart, S. M. (1993) ‘Teachers’ grading practices: Meaning and values’, Journal of Educational Measurement, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 123–142.

Brookhart, S. M. (1994) ‘Teacher’s grading: Practice and theory’, Applied Measurement in Education, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 279–301.

Bursuck, W., Polloway, E. A., Plante, L., Epstein, M. H., Jayanthi, M., and McConeghy, J. (1996) ‘Report card grading and adaptations: A national survey of classroom practices’, Exceptional Children, Vol. 62, No. 4, pp. 301–318.

Cheng, L. and Sun, Y. (2015) ‘Teachers’ grading decision making: Multiple influencing factors and methods’, Language Assessment Quarterly, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 213–233.

Cheng, L. and Wang, X. (2007) ‘Grading, feedback, and reporting in ESL/EFL classrooms’, Language Assessment Quarterly, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 85–107.

Cizek, G. J., Fitzgerald, S. M. and Rachor, R. A. (1995) ‘Teachers’ assessment practices: preparation, isolation, and the kitchen sink’, Educational Assessment, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 159–179.

Cross, L. H. and Frary, R. B. (1999) ‘Hodgepodge grading: Endorsed by students and teachers alike’, Applied Measurement in Education, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 53–92.

Demir, M., Tananis, C. A. and Basbogaoglu, U. (2018) ‘Comparative investigation of alternative assessment methods used in Turkey and United States elementary 4th grade mathematics curriculum’, International Journal of Educational Administration and Policy Studies, Vol. 10, No. 7, pp. 72–82.

Demir, M., Tanasis, C. A. and Trahan, K. W. (2019) ‘Evaluation of alternative assessment methods used in elementary schools’, Education and Science, Vol. 44, No. 197, pp. 223–238.

DeVellis, R. F. and Thorpe, C. T. (2021) Scale development: Theory and applications, London: Sage Publications.

Duncan, C. R. and Noonan. B. (2007) ‘Factors affecting teachers’ grading and assessment practices’, Alberta Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 53, No. 1, pp. 1–21.

Field, A. (2005) Discovering statistic using SPSS for Windows, 2nd edition, London: Sage Publication.

Frary, R. B., Cross, L. H. and Weber, L. J. (1993) ‘Testing and grading practices and opinions of secondary teachers of academic subjects: Implications for instruction in measurement’, Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 23–30.

Gullickson, A. R. (1985) ‘Student evaluation techniques and their relationship to grade and curriculum’, Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 79, No. 2, pp. 96–100.

Guskey, T. (2011) ‘Five obstacles to grading reform’, Educational Leadership, Vol. 69, No. 3, pp. 17–21.

Kline, R. B. (2016) Principles and practice of structural equation modeling, 4th edition, New York: The Guilford Press.

McMillan, J. H. (2001) ‘Secondary teachers’ classroom assessment and grading practices’, Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 20–32.

McMillan, J. H., Myran, S. and Workman, D. (2002) ‘Elementary teachers’ classroom assessment and grading practices’, The Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 95, No. 4, pp. 203–213.

Ministry of National Education (MoNE) (2014) Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı okul öncesi eğitim ve ilköğretim kurumları yönetmeliği [Ministry of National Education regulation on pre-school education and primary education institutions], Ankara: MoNE

Ministry of National Education (MoNE) (2018) Matematik dersi öğretim programı [Primary school mathematics curriculum (1st-8th grade)], Ankara: MoNE

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) (2000) Principles and standards for school mathematics, Reston, VA: The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Özenç, M. and Çakir, M. (2015) ‘Exploring primary school teachers’ competencies of alternative assessment and evaluation’, Elementary Education Online, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 914–933.

Randall, J. and Engelhard, G. (2010) ‘Examining the grading practices of teachers’, Teaching and Teacher Education, Vol. 26, No. 7, pp. 1372–1380.

Serin, G. (2015) ‘Alternative assessment practices of a classroom teacher: alignment with reform-based science curriculum’ Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 277–297.

Shepard, L. A. (2000) ‘The role of assessment in a learning culture’, Educational Researcher, Vol. 29, No. 7, pp. 4–14.

Stiggins, R. J. (1997) Student-centered classroom assessment, 2nd edition, Old Tappan, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Sun, Y. and Cheng, L. (2014) ‘Teachers’ grading practices: Meaning and values assigned’, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 326–343.

Suurtamm, C., Koch, M., and Arden, A. (2010) ‘Teachers’ assessment practices in mathematics: Classrooms in the context of reform’, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 399–417.

Tabachnick, B. G. and Fidell, L. S. (2007) Using multivariate statistics, 5th edition, Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.

Veldhuis, M., Van Den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M., Vermeulen, J. A. and Eggen, T. J. H. M. (2013) ‘Teachers' use of classroom assessment in primary school mathematics education in the Netherlands’, Cadmo, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 35–53.

Wiliam, D. (2011) ‘What is assessment for learning?’, Studies in Educational Evaluation, Vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 3–14.

Yıldızlı, H. (2020) ‘Classroom assessment practices and student goal orientations in mathematics classes’, Journal of Qualitative Research in Education, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 294–323.

Zhang, Z. and Burry-Stock, J. A. (2003) ‘Classroom assessment practices and teachers' self-perceived assessment skills’, Applied Measurement in Education, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 323–342.

Zhao, X., den Heuvel-Panhuizen, V., and Veldhuis, M. (2016) ‘Teachers’ use of classroom assessment techniques in primary mathematics education-an explorative study with six Chinese teachers’, International Journal of STEM Education, Vol. 3, No. 19, pp. 1–18.

Additional Files



How to Cite

Birgin, O. and Yılmaz, M. (2023) ’Identifying the Factors Influencing Mathematics Teachers’ Grading Practices Regarding Students’ In-Class Performance: A Reliability and Validity Study’, Journal on Efficiency and Responsibility in Education and Science, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 196–207.



Research Paper