Improving Teachers’ Professional Vision Through a Video-based Reflection Program: A Case Study in Mexican Primary Schools




professional training, reflection, video technology, selective attention, knowledge-based reasoning


Enhancing teachers’ professional vision (TPV) may contribute to increasing the quality of teaching-learning processes through higher perceived efficacy, leading to autonomy-supportive environment. This is of particular importance in Physical Education (PE), due to the fact that this subject presents different challenges and more dynamic situations compared to others. One of the latest approaches for enhancing TPV is video-based reflection, which allows teachers to observe recorded lessons and analyze them. The aim of this research was to test the effect of a video-based reflection program on TPV in PE. Two teachers participated in a 3-step video-analysis program consisting of self-reflection, peer reflection, and expert feedback. Notable changes were found in TPV at the end of the 6-month intervention, both in terms of teachers’ selective attention to classroom events and their knowledge-based reasoning. Our findings suggest that video-based reflection programs could represent an important part of any teacher training program aiming to increasing PE teachers’ responsiveness to diverse in-class situations.


Barker, D. and Annerstedt, C. (2016) ‘Managing physical education lessons: an interactional approach’, Sport, Education and Society, Vol. 21, No. 6, pp. 924–944.

Borko, H., Jacobs, J., Eiteljorg, E. and Pittman, M. E. (2008) ‘Video as a tool for fostering productive discussions in mathematics professional development’, Teaching and Teacher Education, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 417–436.

Brown, K. and Kennedy, H. (2011) ‘Learning through conversation: Exploring and extending teacher and children’s involvement in classroom talk’, School Psychology International, Vol. 32, No. 4, pp. 377–396.

Cocca, M., Dimas Castro, J., Espino Verdugo, F. and Cocca, A. (2019) ‘Effect of a video-based reflection program on teachers professional vision, self-efficacy and students motivational climate’, EDULEARN Proceedings. 11th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies. (IATED 2019).

Coffey A. M. (2014) ‘Using video to develop skills in reflection in teacher education students’, Australian Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 39, No. 9, pp. 86–97.

Doyle, W. (1986) ‘Classroom Organization and Management’, in Wittrock M.C. (ed.) Handbook of Research on Teaching, New York, NY: Macmillan.

Emerson, R., Fretz, R. and Shaw, L. (1995) Writing Ethnographic Fieldnotes, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Goodwin C. (1994) ‘Professional vision’, American Anthropologist, Vol. 96, No. 3, pp. 606–633.

Jacobs, J. and Morita, E. (2002). ‘Japanese and American Teachers’ Evaluations of Video-taped Mathematics Lessons’, Journal of Research in Mathematics Education, Vol. 33, No. 3, 154–175.

Jung J. (2012) ‘The focus, role, and meaning of experienced teachers’ reflection in physical education’, Physical Education & Pedagogy, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 157–175.

Kersting, N., GIvvin, K., Sotelo, F. and Stigler, J. (2010) ‘Teachers’ analyses of classroom video predict student learning of mathematics: Further explorations of a novel measure of teacher knowledge’, Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 61, No. 1–2, pp. 172–181.

Kleinknecht, M. and Groschner, M. (2016) ‘Fostering preservice teachers’ noticing with structured video feedback: Results of an online- and video-based intervention study’, Teaching and Teacher Education, Vol. 59, pp. 45–56.

Kleinknecht, M. and Schneider, J. (2013) ‘What do teachers think and feel when analyzing videos of themselves and other teachers teaching?’, Teaching and Teacher Education, Vol. 33, pp. 13–23.

König, J. and Kramer, C. (2016) ‘Teacher professional knowledge and classroom management: On the relation of general pedagogical knowledge (GPK) and classroom management expertise (CME)’, ZDM - The International Journal on Mathematics Education, Vol. 48, No. 1, pp. 139–151.

Kostecka, M., Bojanowska, M. and Stoma, M. (2017) ‘The role of physical activity in instilling healthy lifestyle habits in children’ Baltic Journal of Health and Physical Activity, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 133–140.

Leblanc, S. and Sève, C. (2012) ‘Video training and construction of professional experience’, Recherche et Formation, Vol. 70, No. 2, pp. 47–60.

Lefstein, A. and Snell, J. (2011) ‘Professional vision and the politics of teacher learning’, Teaching and Teacher Education, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 505–514.

Little, E. and Hudson, A. (1998) ‘Conduct problems and treatment across home and school: a review of the literature’, Behaviour Change, Vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 213–227.

Lonsdale, C., Lester, A., Owen, K. B., White, R. L., Moyes, I., Peralta, L., Kirwan, M., Maeder, A., Bennie, A., MacMillan, F., Kolt, S. G., Ntoumanis, N., Gore, J. M., Cerin, E., Diallo, T. M. O., Cliff, D. P. and Lubans, D. R. (2016) ‘An Internet-supported Physical Activity Intervention Delivered in Secondary Schools Located in Low Socio-economic Status Communities: Study Protocol for the Activity and Motivation in Physical Education (AMPED) Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial’ BMC Public Health, Vol. 16, No. 17, pp. 1–15.

Luna, M. J. and Sherin, M. G. (2017) ‘Using a video club design to promote teacher attention to students’ ideas in science’ Teaching and Teacher Education, Vol. 66, pp. 282–294.

Meschede, N., Fiebranz, A., Möller, K. and Steffensky, M. (2017) ‘Teachers’ professional vision, pedagogical content knowledge and beliefs: On its relation and differences between pre-service and in-service teachers’, Teaching and Teacher Education, Vol. 66, pp. 158–170.

National Association for Sport and Physical Education (2007) Appropriate instructional practice guidelines for elementary school physical education, [Online], Available: [26 June 2023].

Reuker S. (2017a) ‘The knowledge-based reasoning of physical education teachers: A comparison between groups with different expertise’, European Physical Education Review, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 3–24.

Reuker S. (2017b) ‘The noticing of physical education teachers: A comparison of groups with different expertise’, Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 150–170.

Rich, P. J. and Hannafin, M. (2009) ‘Video annotation tools: Technologies to scaffold, structure, and transform teacher reflection’, Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 60, No. 1, pp. 52–67.

Roth, K. J., Garnier, H., Chen, C., Lemmens, M., Schwille, K. and Wickler, N. I. Z. (2011) ‘Video-based lesson analysis: Effective science PD for teacher and student learning’, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Vol. 48, No. 2, pp. 117–148.

Santagata, R. and Guarino, J. (2011) ‘Using video to teach future teachers to learn from teaching’, ZDM The International Journal of Mathematics Education, Vol. 43, No. 1, pp. 133–145.

Schön, D. A. (ed.) (1983) The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action, New York, NY: Basic Books.

Secretaría de Educación Pública de México (2022) Licenciatura de Educación Física. Plan de Estudio 2022, [Online], Available: [5 July 2023].

Seidel, T., Stürmer, K., Blomberg, G., Kobarg, M. and Schwindt, K. (2011) ‘Teacher learning from analysis of video-taped classroom situations: does it make a difference whether teachers observe their own teaching or that of others?’ Teaching and Teacher Education, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 259–267.

Sherin, M. G. (2001) ‘Developing a professional vision of classroom events’, in Wood, T., Nelson, B. S. and Warfield, J. (ed.) Beyond classical pedagogy: Teaching elementary school mathematics, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Sherin, M. G. and van Es, E. A. (2005) ‘Using video to support teachers’ ability to interpret classroom interactions’, Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 475–491.

Sherin, M. G. and van Es, E. A. (2009) ‘Effects of video club participation on teachers’ professional vision’, Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 60, No. 1, pp. 20–37.

Sherin, M. G. (2007) ‘The development of teachers’ professional vision in video clubs’, in Goldman, R., Pea, R., Barron, B. and Derry, S. (ed.) Video research in the learning sciences, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Sowa, J. F. (1991) Principles of Semantic Networks: Explorations in the representation of knowledge, San Mateo Calif: Morgan Kaufmann.

Sun, J., and van Es, E. A. (2015) ‘An exploratory study of the influence that analyzing teaching has on preservice teachers’ classroom practice’, Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 66, pp. 201–214.

van Es E. A. (2012) ‘Examining the development of a teacher learning community: The case of a video club’, Teaching and Teacher Education, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 182–192.

van Es, E. A. and Sherin, M. G. (2010) ‘The influence of video clubs on teachers’ thinking and practice’, Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 155–176.

Villanueva, D., González-Carrasco, I., López-Cuadrado, J. and Lado, N. (2016) ‘SMORE: Towards a semantic modeling for knowledge representation on social media’, Science of Computer Programming, Vol. 121, No. 1, pp. 16–33.

Walkoe, J. (2015) ‘Exploring teacher noticing of students algebraic thinking in a video club’, Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, Vol. 18, pp. 523–550.

Wolff, C. E., van den Boggert, N., Jarodzka, H. and Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2015) ‘Keeping an eye on learning: Differences between expert and novice teachers’ representation of classroom management events’, Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 66, No. 1, pp. 68–85.

Zhang, M., Lundeberg, M., Koehler, M. J. and Eberhardt, J. (2011) ‘Understanding affordances and challenges of three types of video for teacher professional development’, Teaching and Teacher Education, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 454–462.

Additional Files



How to Cite

Cocca, M. and Cocca, A. (2024) ’Improving Teachers’ Professional Vision Through a Video-based Reflection Program: A Case Study in Mexican Primary Schools’, Journal on Efficiency and Responsibility in Education and Science, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 140–150.



Research Paper