Affective Variables and Motivation as Predictors of Proficiency in English as a Foreign Language
Keywords:AMTB, Affective variables, English proficiency, Learning attitude, L2 motivation, Social-cognitive approach
English has become a key subject of educational systems worldwide. Thus, researchers have centered their attention on psychosocial processes that influence English proficiency in EFL settings. The aim of our study was to investigate the relation between affective variables, motivation and proficiency and assess which attitudinal/motivational domains can better predict English proficiency. Mini AMTB and English Proficiency test were employed to a sample of 354 university students. Our findings showed that students’ achievement was significantly associated with their motivational intensity, their attitude towards learning English and their desire to learn it, as well as with their opinion of English native speakers and their perception of the quality of the English course. Secondly, instrumental orientation, motivational intensity, attitude towards learning English, and students’ perception of the quality of the English course were found to be the predictors of achievement. Thus, creating a culturally enriching in-class environment based on student-centered strategies could impact on pupils’ proficiency more than teachers’ teaching abilities and in-class attitude.
Alavi, S. A. and Abbasnia, S. (2014) ‘Motivation and motivation-related factors and their relationship with burnout and engagement: a study of Iranian EFL learners’, International Journal of Research Studies in Language Learning, Vol. 3, No. 5, pp. 107-120. https://dx.doi.org/10.5861/ijrsll.2014.681
Alrabai, F. and Moskovsky, C. (2016) ‘The Relationship between Learners’ Affective Variables and Second Language Achievement’, Arab World English Journal, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 77-103. https://dx.doi.org/10.24093/awej/vol7no2.6
Amengual-Pizarro, M. (2017) ‘Foreign language classroom anxiety among English for Specific purposes (ESP) students’, International Journal of English Studies, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp.145-159. https://doi.org/10.6018//ijes/2018/2/323311
Azizinezhad, M., Hashemi, M. and Darvishi, S. (2013) ‘Application of cooperative learning in EFL classes to enhance students’ language learning’, Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 93, pp. 138-141. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.09.166
Bernardo, A., Amerigo, M. and García, J. A. (2014) ‘Acquisition of Spanish as a foreign language through the socioeducational model: a cross-cultural analysis’, Journal of Language and Social Psychology, Vol. 33, No. 5, pp. 500-516. https://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0261927X14534243
Bernaus, M. and Gardner, R. C. (2008) ‘Teacher motivation strategies, student perceptions, student motivation, and English achievement’, The Modern Language Journal, Vol. 92, No. 3, pp. 387-401. https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2008.00753.x
Bernaus, M., Masgoret, A. M., Gardner, R. C. and Reyes, E. (2004) ‘Motivation and attitudes towards learning languages in multicultural classroom’, The International Journal of Multilingualism, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 76-89. https://doi.org/10.1080/14790710408668180
Bouazid, T. and Le Roux, C. S. (2014) ‘Why Algerian students struggle to achieve in English literature: an appraisal of possible root causes’, Teaching in Higher Education, Vol. 19, No. 8, pp. 882-894. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13562517.2014.934341
Bur, E., Haas, E. and Ferriere, K. (2015) Identifying and supporting English learner students with learning disabilities: key issues in the literature and state practice, Washington DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Laboratory West.
Byun, G. (2013) ‘The importance of motivation in second language learning achievement’, Journal of Linguistic Studies, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 101-122.
Carrio-Pastor, M. L. and Mestre, E. M. M. (2014) ‘Motivation in second language acquisition’, Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 116, pp. 240-244. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.201
Cheng, L., Klinger, D., Fox, J., Doe, C., Jin, Y. and Wu, J. (2014) ‘Motivation and test anxiety in test performance across three testing contexts: the CAEL, CET, and GEPT’, Tesol Quarterly, Vol. 48, No. 2, pp. 300-330. https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tesq.105
Cocca, M., Pérez García, J. A., Zamarripa, J. I., Demetriou, Y., and Cocca, A. (2017) ‘Psychometric parameters of the Attitude/Motivation Test Battery instrument in a Mexican environment’, Journal of Sports Psychology, Vol. 26, Suppl. 2, pp. 149-155.
Crystal, D. (2010) The Cambridge encyclopedia of language, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Daller, M. H. and Phelan, D. (2013) ‘Predicting international students study success’, Applied Linguistics Review, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 173-193. https://dx.doi.org/10.1515/applirev-2013-0008
Deci, E. L. and Ryan, M. R. (1985) Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior, New York: Plenum.
Deci, E. L. and Ryan, M. R. (2008) ‘Self-determination theory: a macrotheory of human motivation, development and health’, Canadian Psychology, Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 182-185. https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0012801
Dema, O. and Moeller, A. K. (2012) ‘Teaching culture in the 21st century language classroom’, Selected Papers from the 2012 Central States Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, Milwaukee, pp. 75-91.
Dörnyei, Z. (2001) ‘New Themes and approaches in second language motivation research’, Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, Vol. 21, pp. 3-59. https://doi.org/10.1017/S026719050100003
Dörnyei, Z. (2005) The Psychology of the Language Learner: Individual Differences in Second
Language Acquisition, Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Dörnyei, Z. and Ushioda, E. (2011) Teaching and Researching Motivation, 2nd edition, Harlow: Pearson Longman.
Edwards, D. (1994) ‘Script formulations: a study of event descriptions in conversation’, Journal of Language and Social Psychology, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 211-247. https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X94133001
Edwards, L. (2007) Solutions Placement Test. Elementary to Intermediate, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Egron-Polak E. (2012). ‘Internationalization of Higher Education: A Few Global Trends and Regional Perspectives’, in Ennew, C. T. and Greenaway, D. (eds.) The Globalization of Higher Education. London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 57-69.
Fahim, M. and Bagheri, M. B. (2012) ‘Fostering critical thinking through Socrates’ questioning in Iranian language institutes’, Journal of Language Teaching and Research, Vol. 3, No. 6, pp. 1122-1127. https://dx.doi.org/10.4304/jltr.3.6.1122-1127
Falla, T. and Davies, P. A. (2013) Solutions Teacher’s Book, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Feng, H. Y. and Fan, J. J. (2012) ‘A study on students’ learning motivation of EFL in Taiwanese vocational college’, International Journal of Learning and Development, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 260-269. https://dx.doi.org/10.5296/ijld.v2i3.1791
Gardner, R. C. (1985) Social psychology and second language learning: the role of attitudes and motivation, London: Edward Arnold.
Gardner, R. C. (2006) ‘The socio-educational model of second language acquisition: a research paradigm’, EUROSLA Yearbook, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 237-260. https://dx.doi.org/10.1075/eurosla.6.14gar
Gardner, R. C. (2010) Motivation and second language acquisition: the socio-educational model, New York: Peter Lang.
Gardner, R. C. and MacIntyre, P. D. (1993) ‘On the measurement of affective variables in second language learning’, Language Learning, Vol. 43, No. 3, pp. 157-194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1992.tb00714.x
González Ardeo, J. M. (2005) ‘Student engineers, ESP courses, and testing with cloze tests’, ESP World, Vol. 2, No. 10.
González Ardeo, J. M. (2016) ‘Learning motivation and strategies of ESP university students’, Revista de Lenguas para Fines Específicos, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 141-169. https://dx.doi.org/10.20420/rlfe.2016.0094
Greenfader, C. M., Brouilette, L. and Farkas, G. (2015) ‘Effect of performing arts programs on the oral language skills of young English learners’, Reading Research Quarterly, Vol. 50, No. 2, pp. 185-203. https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rrq.90
Horwitz, E. K. (2010) ‘Foreign and second language anxiety’, Language Teaching, Vol. 43, No. 2, pp. 154-167. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S026144480999036X
Iwaniec, J. (2014) ‘Motivation of pupils from southern Poland to learn English’, System, Vol. 45, pp. 67-78. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2014.05.003
Jain, Y. and Sidhu, G. K. (2013) ‘Relationship between anxiety, attitude, and motivation of tertiary students in learning English as a Second Language’, Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 90, pp. 114-123. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.07.072
Jiang, W. G. and Zheng, Y. Y. (2013) ‘The effects of culture on foreign language learning beliefs’, Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE International Conference in Mooc, Innovation and Technology in Education, Jaipur, pp. 380-385. https://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MITE.2013.6756372
Jodaei, H., Zareian, G., Reza Amirian, M. and Reza Adel, S. M. (2018) ‘From the state of motivated to demotivated: Iranian military EFL learners’ motivation change’, The Journal of Asia TEFL, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 32-50. https://dx.doi.org/10.18823/asiatefl.2018.15.1.3.32
Johnson, K. (2001) An introduction to foreign language learning and teaching, London: Pearson Education Limited.
Contreras, J. (2009) In the Shadow of the Giant: The Americanization of Modern Mexico, New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.
Karlak, M. and Velki, T. (2015) ‘Motivation and learning strategies as predictors of foreign language communicative competence’, Croatian Journal of Education, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 635-658. https://dx.doi.org/10.15516/cje.v17i3.1759
Khodadad, M. and Kaur, J. (2016) ‘Causal Relationships between Integrative Motivation, Self-Efficacy, Strategy Use and English Language Achievement’, 3L: Southeast Asian Journal of English Language Studies, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 111–125. http://doi.org/10.17576/3L-2016-2203-08
Kiesler, C. A., Nisbett, R. E., and Zanna, M. P. (1969). ‘On inferring one’s beliefs from one’s behavior’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 321-327. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0027344
Lemon, N. (1973). Attitudes and their measurement; part 2, Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.
Luong-Phan, N. H. and Effeney, G. (2015) ‘TOEFL iBT and language learning motivation: an investigation into teaching styles and influential factors for Vietnamese adolescents’, International Journal of Research Studies in Language Learning, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 3-18. https://dx.doi.org/10.5861/ijrsll.2014.906
Macianskiene, N. and Bijeikiene, V. (2013) ‘Extracurricular language and culture promotion events as informal language learning settings’, 6th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation, Seville, pp. 1600-1609.
MacIntyre, P. and Blackie, R. A. (2012) ‘Action control, motivated strategies, and integrative motivation as predictors of language learning affect and the intention to continue learning French’, System, Vol. 40, No. 4, pp. 533-543. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2012.10.014
Masgoret, A. and Gardner, R. (2003) ‘Attitudes, motivation and second language learning: A meta-analysis of studies conducted by Gardner and associates’, Language Learning, Vol. 53, No. 1, pp. 123-163. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9922.00212
Masrom, U. K., Alwi, N. A. N. M. and Daud, N. S. M. (2015) ‘The Role of Task Complexity and Task Motivation in Language Production’, Gema Online Journal of Language Studies, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 33-49.
McEown, M. S., Noels, K. A. and Saumure, K. D. (2014) ‘Students’ self-determined and integrative orientations and teachers’ motivational support in a Japanese as a foreign language context’, System, Vol. 45, pp. 227-241. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2014.06.001
Nourinezhad, S., Kargar, A. A. and Rostampour, M. (2015) ‘The relationship between second language(l2) learners' motivation and language learning strategies with l2 writing ability of the students of medicine and dentistry at shiraz university of medical sciences’, Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 266-282.
Papi, M. and Teimouri, Y. (2014) ‘Language learner motivational types: a cluster analysis study’, Language Learning, Vol. 64, No. 3, pp. 493-525. https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/lang.12065
Piller, I. and Cho, J. (2013) ‘Neoliberalism as language policy’, Language in Society, Vol. 42, No. 1, pp. 23-44. https://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0047404512000887
Quan, Z. (2014) ‘Motivation for a second or foreign language learning’, SHS Web of Conferences, Vol. 6, pp. A04004. https://dx.doi.org/10.1051/shsconf/20140604004
Samad, A. A., Etemadzadeh, A. and Far, H. R. (2012) ‘Motivation and language proficiency: instrumental and integrative aspects’, Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 66, No. 7, pp. 432-440. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.11.287
Sandoval Pineda, A. (2011) Attitude, motivation, and English language learning in a Mexican college context, thesis dissertation, University of Arizona, United States.
Saville-Troike, M. (2006) Introducing Second Language Acquisition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Scott, W. A. (1968) ‘Attitude measurement’, in G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), Handbook of Social Psychology (pp. 204-273). Reading: Addison-Wesley.
Shaw, M. E., and Wright, J. M. (1967) Scales for the Measurement of Attitudes, New York: McGraw-Hill.
Spolsky, B. (1990) Conditions for second language learning, Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.
Stanat, P., Becker, M., Baumert, J., Ludtke, O. and Eckhardt, A. G. (2012) ‘Improving second language skills of immigrant students: a field trial study evaluating the effects of a summer learning program’, Learning and Instruction, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 159-170. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruct.2011.10.002
Thang, S. M., Ting, S. L. and Nurjanah, M. J. (2011) ‘Attitudes and motivation of Malaysian secondary students towards learning English as a second language: a case study’, Southeast Asian Journal of English Language Studies, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 40-54.
Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (2011) Visión 2020 UANL, [Online], Available: http://www.uanl.mx/utilerias/vision2020.pdf
Van Mulken, M. and Hendriks, B. (2015) ‘Your language or mine? Or English as a lingua franca? Comparing effectiveness in English as a lingua franca and L1-l2 interactions: implications for corporate language policies’, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 404-422. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2014.936873
Waninge, F., Dornyei, Z. and De Bot, K. (2014) ‘Motivational dynamics in language learning: change, stability, and context’, Modern Language Journal, Vol. 98, No. 3, pp. 704-723. https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2014.12118.x
Xu, H. and Gao, Y. (2014) ‘The development of English learning motivation and learners’ identity: a structural equation modelling analysis of longitudinal data from Chinese universities’, System, Vol. 47, pp. 102-115. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2014.09.020
Zarrinabadi, N. (2014) ‘Communicating in a second language: investigating the effect of teacher on learners’ willingness to communicate’, System, Vol. 42, pp. 288-295. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2013.12.014
How to Cite
Authors declare with this manuscript intended for publication to ERIES Journal that:
- all co-authors agree with the publication of the manuscript even after amendments arising from peer review;
- all co-authors agree with the posting of the full text of this work on the web page of ERIES Journal and to the inclusion of references in databases accessible on the internet;
- no results of other researchers were used in the submitted manuscript without their consent, proper citation, or acknowledgement of their cooperation or material provided;
- the results (or any part of them) used in the manuscript have not been sent for publication to any other journal nor have they already been published (or if so, that the relevant works are cited in this manuscript);
- submission of the manuscript for publication was completed in accordance with the publishing regulations pertaining to place of work;
- experiments performed comply with current laws and written consent of the Scientific Ethics Committee / National Animal Care Authority (as is mentioned in the manuscript submitted);
- grant holders confirm that they have been informed of the submitted manuscript and they agree to its publication.
Authors retain copyright and grant ERIES Journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the published work with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in ERIES Journal. Moreover, authors are able to post the published work in an institutional repository with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in ERIES Journal. In addition, authors are permitted and encouraged to post the published work online (e.g. institutional repositories or on their website) as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.