A Study on the Relationship Between Burnout and Job Satisfaction of Iranian EFL Teachers Working in Universities and Schools
Keywords:Selected:Burnout, EFL teachers, job satisfaction
A teacher plays an important role in the development of the students’ potential and helps to form their future. This research intends to study the degree of burnout and job satisfaction in English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers of universities and Schools in Iran, as well as their association with demographic characteristics. To measure teachers’ burnout, Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire was applied, which has also been validated by experienced teachers for the Iranian population and the Employee Satisfaction Inventory questionnaire, prepared for the Iranian population, was applied to estimate job satisfaction. Questionnaires were answered completely by 159 teachers, who work at universities and schools in Iran. After data analysis, the findings showed a negative correlation between teachers’ burnout and their job satisfaction; their experience relatively moderate burnout levels, and their job satisfaction level is high. The findings also represented that the type of workplace influences satisfaction regarding the factor “job conditions”. The study was for the first time that Iranian EFL teachers’ burnout and job satisfaction in universities and schools were investigated and the findings showed that by increasing the level of job satisfaction, the perceived burnout decreases, where burnout and job satisfaction presented medium to high negative correlation.
Anbar, A. and Eker, M. (2008) ‘An Examination of Relationship between Burnout and Job Satisfaction among Turkish Accounting and Finance Academicians’, Europian Jurnal of Economic and Political Studies. Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 39–57.
Atmaca, Ç. (2017) ‘A burning issue among English teachers: Reflections of in-service teachers on job satisfaction and burnout’, International Association of Research in Foreign Language Education and Applied Linguistics, ELT Research Journal, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 89–115.
Azeem, S. M. (2010) ‘Personality hardiness, job involvement and job burnout among teachers’, International Journal of Vocational and Technical Education, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 36– 40.
Azeem, S. M. and Nazir, A. N. (2008) ‘A study of job burnout among university teachers’, Psychology Developing Societies, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 51–64. https://doi.org/10.1177/097133360702000103
Aziri, B. (2011) ‘Job Satisfaction: A literature Review’, Management Research and Practice, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 77–86.
Azlina, B. M. K. and Noryati, B. Ch. (2012) The Relationship between work stress and job satisfaction among principal in Melaka, Malaysia, [Unpublished Thesis]. Johor Bahru: Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
Balkin, R. S., White, G. L. and Bodey, K. J. (2003) ‘Do classroom behavior, access to materials, and teaching experience influence teachers leaving the profession?’, Arkansas Educational Research and Policy Studies Journal, Vol. 2, pp. 65–79.
Barrick, R. K. (1989) ‘Burnout and job satisfaction of vocational supervisors’, Journal of Agricultural Education, Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 35–41. https://doi.org/10.5032/jae.1989.04035
Bhana, A. and Haffejee, N. (1996) ‘Relation among measures of burnout, job satisfaction, and role dynamics for a sample of South African child-care social workers’, Psychol Reports, Vol. 79, No. 2, pp. 431–434. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.19188.8.131.521
Bibou-Nakou, I., Stogiannidou, A. and Kiosseoglou, G. (1999) ‘The relation between teacher burnout and teachers’ attributions and practices regarding school behaviour problems’, School Psychology International, Vol. 20, pp. 209–217. https://doi.org/10.1177/0143034399020002004
Bilge, F. (2006) ‘Examining the burnout of academics in relation to job satisfaction and other factors’, Social Behavior and Personality, Vol. 34, No. 9, pp. 1151–1160. https://doi.org/10.1177/0143034399020002004
Blandford, S. (2000) Managing Professional Development in schools, Educational management series, London: Routledge.
Brewer, E. and McMahan-Landers, J. (2003) ‘The relationship between job stress and job satisfaction among industrial and technical teacher educators’, Journal of Career and Technical Education, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 37–50. http://doi.org/10.21061/jcte.v20i1.622
Castillo, J. X. and Cano, J. (2004) ‘Factors Explaining Job Satisfaction among Faculty’, Journal of Agricultural Education, Vol. 45, No. 3, pp. 65–75. https://doi.org/10.5032/jae.2004.03065
Cephe, P. T. (2010) ‘A study of the factors leading English teachers to burnout’, Hacettepe University Journal of Education, Vol. 38, pp. 25–34.
Ceylan, A. and Mohammadzadeh, B. (2016) ‘Examining the burnout levels of EFL lecturers at the School of Foreign Languages of a State University in Turkey: Manisa Case’, International Journal of New Trends in Arts, Sports and Science Education (IJTASE), Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 12–23.
Charalambous, E. (2012) Sources of job stress and job burnout among secondary school teachers in the region of Attica. Athens: Charokopion University.
Croom, D. B. (2003) ‘Teacher burnout in agricultural education’, Journal of Agricultural Education, Vol. 44, No. 2, pp. 1–13. https://doi.org/10.5032/jae.2003.02001
Daniilidou, A. (2013) The Study of Primary Education Teacher Occupational Burnout with Three Alternative Models: The Maslach Model, the Pines Model and the Copenhagen Model, [Unpublished Thesis]. Thessaloniki: Thesis at the University of Macedonia.
Demirel, E. E., and Cephe, T. P. (2015) ‘Looking into burnout levels among English language instructors’, Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 1–14.
Farber, B. A. (1998) ‘Tailoring treatment strategies for different types of burnout’, 106th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco, CA, pp. 14–18.
Farshi, S. S. and Omranzadeh, F. (2014) ‘The effect of gender, education level and marital status on Iranian EFL teachers’ burnout level’, International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature, Vol. 3, No. 5, pp. 128–133. http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.3n.5p.128
Gavish, B. and Friedman, I. A. (2010) ‘Novice teachers’ experience of teaching: a dynamic aspect of burnout’, Social Psychology of Education, Vol. 13, pp. 141–167. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11218-009-9108-0
Grundy W. and Blandford S. (1999) ‘Developing a Culture for Positive Behaviour Management’, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 5–9. https://doi.org/10.1080/1363275990040302
Güven, L. Ç. (2010) Burnout Levels of English Lecturers Working for Preparatory Schools of Foundation Universities in İstanbul. [Unpublished Master’s Thesis]. Kars: Kafkas University.
Hastings R. P. and Bham M. S. (2003) ‘The relationship between student behavior patterns and teacher burnout’, School Psychology International, Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 115–127. https://doi.org/10.1177/0143034303024001905
Higgins E. T. (1987) ‘Self-discrepancy: A theory relating self and affect’, Psychological Review, Vol. 94, No. 3, pp. 319–340. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.94.3.319
Jarvis M. (2002) ‘Teacher stress: A critical review of recent findings and suggestions for future research directions’, Stress News, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 12–16.
Johnson S., Cooper C., Cartwright S., Donald I., Taylor P. and Millet C. (2005) ‘The experience of work-related stress across occupations’, Journal of managerial psychology, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 178–187. https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940510579803
Kara S. (2020) ‘Investigation of job satisfaction and burnout of visual arts teachers’, International Journal of Research in Education and Science, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 160–171. https://doi.org/10.46328/ijres.v6i1.817
Karavasilis G. (2019) ‘Work satisfaction or burnout and their impact on innovative work behavior of Greek teachers’, Journal of Contemporary Education Theory & Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 3–10. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3635027
Kırılmaz A. Y., Çelen Ü. and Sarp N. (2003) ‘İlköğretimde çalışan bir öğretmen grubunda tükenmişlik durumu araştırması’, İlköğretim-Online, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 2–9.
Koeske G. F., Kirk S. A., Koeske R. D. and Rauktis M. B. (1994) ‘Measuring the Monday blues: validation of a job satisfaction scale for the human services’, Social Work Research, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 27–35. https://doi.org/10.1093/swr/18.1.27
Kokkinos C. M. (2006) ‘Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Maslach Burnout Inventory Educators Survey among elementary and secondary school teachers in Cyprus’, Stress Health, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 25–33. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.1079
Kolbadinejad M., Ashraf Ganjouei F. and Haji Anzehaei Z. (2018) ‘Performance Evaluation Model according to Performance Improvement and Satisfaction of the Staff in the Individual Sports Federations and Federations with Historical Aspect’, Annals of Applied Sport Science, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 59–67. https://doi.org/10.29252/aassjournal.6.4.59
Konakay G. and Altaş S. S. (2011) ‘Akademisyenlerde tükenmişlik ve iş tatmini düzeylerinin demografik değişkenler açısından incelenmesi: Kocaeli Üniver-sitesi örneği’, SAÜ Fen Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi, Vol. 2, pp. 35–71.
Konert, E. (1997) Relationship among middle-school teacher burnout, stress, job satisfaction and coping styles, [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Detroit: Wayne State University.
Koruklu N., Feyzioglu B., Ozenoglu-Kiremit H. and Aladag E. (2012) ‘Teachers' burnout levels in terms of some variables’, Educational Science: Theory and Practice, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 1823–1830.
Koustelios A. D. and Bagiatis K. (2016) ‘The Employee Satisfaction Inventory (ESI): Development of a Scale to Measure Satisfaction of Greek Employees’, Educational and Psychological Measurement, Vol. 57, No. 3, pp. 469–476. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164497057003008
Kroupis I., Kouli O., and Kourtessis T. (2019) ‘Physical Education Teacher’s Job Satisfaction and Burnout Levels in Relation to School’s Sport Facilities’, International Journal of Instruction, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 579–592. https://doi.org/10.29333/iji.2019.12437a
Kurtoğlu, Ü. (2011) An Evaluation of ELT Teachers’ Vocational Burnout According to Some Variables, [Unpublished Master]. Kars: Thesis.Kafkas University.
Lackritz J. R. (2004) ‘Exploring burnout among university faculty: incidence, performance, and demographic issues’, Teaching and Teacher Education, Vol. 20, pp. 713–729. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2004.07.002
Landsman M. J. (2001) ‘Commitment in public child welfare’, The Social Service Review, Vol. 75, No. 3, pp. 386–419. https://doi.org/10.1086/322857
LeCompte, M. D. and Dworkin, A. G. (1991) Giving up on school: Student dropouts and teacher burnouts, Newbury Park, CA: Corwin Press.
Lee J. S. (1990) ‘How healthy are agriculture teachers?’ The Agricultural Education Magazine, Vol. 62, No. 12, pp. 6, 21.
Lim, Y. Ch. (2005) Relationship between work stress and job satisfaction among technical teachers in Technical Secondary School Kedah, Malaysia, [Unpublished Thesis]. Johor Bahru: Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
Locke E. A. (1976) ‘The Nature and Causes of Job Satisfaction’, in: Dunnette, M. D., (ed.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 1, pp. 1297–1343.
Maslach, C. (1982) Burnout: The Cost of Caring. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Maslach, C., and Leiter, M. P. (1997) The truth about burnout, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Maslach C. and Jackson S. E. (1981) ‘The measurement of experienced burnout’, Journal of Organisational Behaviour, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 99–113. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.4030020205
Maslach, C., Jackson, S. E. and Leiter, M. P. (1996) Maslach Burnout Inventory Manual, 3rd edition, Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Maslach C., Schaufeli W. B. and Leiter M. P. (2001) ‘Job burnout’, Annual Review of Psychology, Vol. 52, pp. 397–422. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.397
McCormick J. (2011) ‘Teachers’ attributions for stress and their relationships with burnout’, International Journal of Educational Management, Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 278–293. https://doi.org/10.1108/09513541111120114
Norul Azlin, B. I. (2005) Stress among UPSR teachers in Pendang, [Unpublished Thesis]. Johor Bahru: Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
Özkanal Ü. and Arikan N. (2010) ‘Investigation of Burnout among Instructors Working at ESOGU Preparatory School’, English language teaching, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 166–172. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v3n1p166
Öztürk G. (2013) ‘Job Burnout Experienced by Turkish Instructors of English Working at State Universities’, International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 587–597.
Papastylianou A., Kaila M. and Polychronopoulos M. (2009) ‘Teachers’ burnout, depression, role ambiguity and conflict’, Social Psychology of Education, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 295–314. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11218-008-9086-7
Platsidou M. and Agaliotis I. (2008) ‘Burnout, Job Satisfaction and Instructional Assignment‐related Sources of Stress in Greek Special Education Teachers’, International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, Vol. 55, No. 1, pp. 61–76. https://doi.org/10.1080/10349120701654613
Petty G. C., Brewer E. W. and Brown B. (2005) ‘Job Satisfaction among Employees of a Youth Development Organization’, Child and Youth Care Forum, Vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 57–75. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10566-004-0882-8
Rahman U., Wan Sulaiman W., Nasir R. and Omar F. (2014) ‘The Role of Job Satisfaction as Mediator in the Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Organizational Citizenship Behavior among Indonesian Teachers’, International Journal of Business and Social Science. Vol. 5, No. 9, pp. 257–260.
Rakovec-Felser Z. (2011) ‘Professional Burnout as the State and Process – What to Do?’, Collegium Anthropologist, Vol. 35, No. 2, pp. 577–585.
Robinson O. P., Bridges Sh. A., Rollins L. H., and Schumacker R. E. (2019) ‘A study of the relation between special education burnout and job satisfaction’, Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, Vol. 19, No. 4, pp. 295–303. https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-3802.12448
Roy J. and Kumar A. (2018) ‘Relationship between Burnout and Job Satisfaction among the Teachers in Engineering Institutes’, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 705–717.
Schaufeli, W. B. and Enzmann, D. (1998) The Burnout Companion to Study and Practice, London: Taylor and Francis.
Schmidt K. H., Neubach B. and Heuer H. (2007) ‘Self-control demands, cognitive control deficits, and burnout’, Work and Stress, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 142–154. https://doi.org/10.1080/02678370701431680
Seashore S. and Taber T. (1975) ‘Job Satisfaction Indicators and Their Correlates’, American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 333–368. https://doi.org/10.1177/000276427501800303
Sitohang, N. (2004) Asuhan Keperawatan Pada anak Child Abuse, Medan: USU Digital Library.
Skaalvik E. M. and Skaalvik S. (2009) ‘Does school context matter? Relations with teacher burnout and job satisfaction’, Teaching and Teacher Education, Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 518–524. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2008.12.006
Sotirios V., Olga K., Thomas K., Efstratia T., and Dimos D. (2019) ‘Job Satisfaction and Burnout among Greek Teachers and Physical Education Teachers: A Comparison in Minority and Public Sector Schools in Thrace’, Annals of Applied Sport Science, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 52–60. https://doi.org/10.29252/aassjournal.786
Soroor R., Afsaaneh G. and Zargham G. (2015) ‘A study of contextual precursors of burnout among EFL Teachers’, International Journal of Research Studies in Psychology, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 13–24. https://doi.org/10.5861/ijrsp.2015.1025
Spector P. E. (1985) ‘Measurement of Human Service Staff Satisfaction: Development of the Job Satisfaction Survey’, American Journal of Community Psychology, Vol. 13, No. 6, pp. 693–713. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00929796
Straquadine G. S. (1990) ‘Work, is it your drug of choice?’, The Agricultural Education Magazine, Vol. 62, No. 12, pp. 11–12, 21.
Tan, S. L. (2006) The effect of personality on job satisfaction and teacher job stress, [Unpublished Thesis]. Johor Bahru: Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
Taris T. W. (2006) ‘Is there a relationship between burnout and objective performance: Critical review of 16 studies?’, Work and Stress, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 316–334. https://doi.org/10.1080/02678370601065893
Terason S. (2018) ‘The Effect of Conflict Management in Thai Public-Sector Sport Organizations on Employee Job Satisfaction and Perceived Organizational Performance’, Academy of Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 168–172.
Torkaman F., Farhang S., Zakerian S. A., Torkaman M., and Keramati Niaragh H. (2017) ‘A study on the effect of job burnout and stress on job satisfaction among teachers of exceptional school’, Pharmacophore, Vol. 8, No. 5, pp. 18–24.
Troman, G. and Woods, P. (2001) Primary teachers’ stress, New York: Routledge/Falmer.
Tukiran, N. (2014) Assessment literacy among prospective technical teachers in public universities of the South Zone, [Unpublished Thesis]. Batu Pahat: Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia.
Tye B. B. and O'Brien L. (2016) ‘Why are Experienced Teachers Leaving the Profession?’ Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 84, No. 1, pp. 24–32. https://doi.org/10.1177/003172170208400108
Van Jaarsveld, J. (2004) The relationship between burnout, coping, and sense of coherence amongst engineers and scientists, [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Pretoria: University of South Africa.
Vedder R. and Hall J. (2000) ‘Private school competition and public school teacher salaries’, Journal of Labor Research, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 161–168. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12122-000-1010-7
Vousiopoulos S., Kouli O., Kourtessis T., Tsitskari E. and Tsitskari D. (2019) ‘Job Satisfaction and Burnout among Greek Teachers and Physical Education Teachers. A Comparison in Minority and Public Sector Schools in Thrace', Annals of Applied Sport Science, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 52–60. https://doi.org/10.29252/aassjournal.786
Wagner, J. and Hollenbeck, J. (1992) Management of Organizational Behavior. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Weisberg J. and Sagie A. (1999) ‘Teachers’ physical, mental, and emotional burnout: Impact on intention to quit’, Journal of Psychology, Vol. 133, No. 3, pp. 333–339. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223989909599746
Wisnu P. (2019) ‘The relationship among emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, performance, and intention to leave’, Advances in Management & Applied Economics, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 21–29.
Wu G., Duan K., Zuo J., Yang J. and Wen S. (2016) ‘System Dynamics Model and Simulation of Employee Work-Family Conflict in the Construction Industry’, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 13, No. 11. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13111059
Yu-Hsia L. and Mei-Hsiang L. (2019) ‘Exploring the Relationship Between Burnout and Job Satisfaction Among Clinical Nurses’, European Scientific Journal, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 449–460. http://dx.doi.org/10.19044/esj.2019.v15n3p449
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Ibrahim Safari
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors declare with this manuscript intended for publication to ERIES Journal that:
- all co-authors agree with the publication of the manuscript even after amendments arising from peer review;
- all co-authors agree with the posting of the full text of this work on the web page of ERIES Journal and to the inclusion of references in databases accessible on the internet;
- no results of other researchers were used in the submitted manuscript without their consent, proper citation, or acknowledgement of their cooperation or material provided;
- the results (or any part of them) used in the manuscript have not been sent for publication to any other journal nor have they already been published (or if so, that the relevant works are cited in this manuscript);
- submission of the manuscript for publication was completed in accordance with the publishing regulations pertaining to place of work;
- experiments performed comply with current laws and written consent of the Scientific Ethics Committee / National Animal Care Authority (as is mentioned in the manuscript submitted);
- grant holders confirm that they have been informed of the submitted manuscript and they agree to its publication.
Authors retain copyright and grant ERIES Journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the published work with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in ERIES Journal. Moreover, authors are able to post the published work in an institutional repository with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in ERIES Journal. In addition, authors are permitted and encouraged to post the published work online (e.g. institutional repositories or on their website) as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.