Examination of Science Self-Regulation Skills of Gifted and Non-Gifted Students


  • Oğuzhan Nacaroğlu Erciyes Üniversitesi
  • Oktay Bektaş Assoc, Prof., Faculty of Education, Erciyes University, Kayseri
  • Mustafa Tüysüz Van Yüzüncü Yıl University, Science Education Department, Van, Turkey




Science, self-regulation, gifted students, normal students, survey


The study aimed to examine and compare the science self-regulation skills of gifted and non-gifted students in this study. Survey design, one of the quantitative methods, was utilized in the research. The sample of the study consisted of 263 gifted students enrolled in science and art center and 482 non-gifted students located in the Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. Science Self-regulation Scale was used as a data collection tool in the research. Independent samples t-test and one-way analysis of variance were used in the analysis of the data. The findings showed that gifted and non-gifted students had high self-regulation skills towards science. In addition, it was found that although there was no statistically significant difference between the average scores of gifted female and male students on the overall scale, there was a significant difference in the other group. Moreover, while the difference between the mean scores obtained in the dimensions of Refinement, Time Organizing, Organizing, Help Seeking, Metacognitive Self-regulation, and Repetition was in favor of gifted students, it was in favor of non-gifted students regarding the mean scores of critical thinking and effort regulation dimensions. The conclusion and implication were discussed in line with these findings.


Akpınar, B., Batdı, V. and Dönder, A. (2013) ‘Evaluating Primary School Students’ Motivation Levels in Science Education in Terms of Gender and Class Variables’, Cumhuriyet International Journal of Education, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 15–26.

Alcı, B. and Altun, S. (2007) ‘Lise Öğrencilerinin Matematik Dersine Yönelik Özdüzenleme ve Bilişüstü Becerileri, Cinsiyete, Sınıfa ve Alanlara göre Farklılaşmakta mıdır? [Do High School Students' Self-regulation and Metacognitive Skills for Mathematics Lesson Differentiate According to Gender, Class and Fields?]’, Journal of the Cukurova University Institute of Social Sciences, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 33–44.

Bauer, I. M. and Baumeister, R. F. (2011) ‘Self-regulatory strength’, in Vohs, K. D. and Baumeister, R. F. (ed.), Handbook of self-regulation: research, theory, and applications, pp. 64–82, New York: Guilford Press.

Baumeister, R. F., Heatherton, T. F. and Tice, D. M. (1994) Losing Control: How and Why People Fail at Self-Regulation, San Diego, California: Academic Press.

Betül Cebesoy, Ü. (2013) ‘Pre-service Science Teachers' Perceptions of Self-Regulated Learning in Physics’, Turkish Journal of Education, January, Vol. 2, No.1, pp. 4–18. https://doi.org/10.19128/turje.181050

Boekaerts, M. (1997) ‘Self-regulated learning: A new concept embraced by researchers, policy makers, educator, teacher, and students’, Learning and Instruction, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 161–186. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0959-4752(96)00015-1

Boekaerts, M. and Niemivirta, M. (2005) Self-Regulated Learning: Finding a Balance Between Learning Goals and Ego-Protective Goals, in Boekarters, M., Pintrich, P. R. and Zeidner, M. (ed.) Handbook of Self Regulation, San Diego: Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012109890-2/50042-1

Borkowski, J. G. (1992) ‘Metacognitive Theory: A Framework for Teaching Literacy, Writing and Math Skills’, Journal of Learning Disabilities, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 253–257. https://doi.org/10.1177/002221949202500406

Bouffard, T., Boisvert, J., Vezeau, C., and Larouche, C. (1995) ‘The Impact Of Goal-Orientation On Self-Regulation And Performance Among College Students’, British Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 65, No. 3, pp. 317–329. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8279.1995.tb01152.x

Büyüköztürk, Ş., Çakmak, E. K., Akgün, Ö. E., Karadeniz, Ş. and Demirel, F. (2010) Bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri [Scientific research methods], Ankara: Pegem Yayıncılık.

Can Aran, Ö. (2015) ‘Özdüzenleme ve Çalışma Becerileri Arasındaki İlişki’, Pegem Eğitim ve Öğretim Dergisi, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 207–220. https://doi.org/10.14527/pegegog.2015.011

Cavilla, D. (2019) ‘Maximizing the Potential of Gifted Learners Through a Developmental Framework of Affective Curriculum’, Gifted Education International, Vol. 35, No. 2, pp. 136–151. https://doi.org/10.1177/0261429418824875

Chan, C. K. and Rao, N. (2010) Revisiting the Chinese learner: Changing contexts, changing education CERC studies in comparative education (Vol. 25), Dordrecht: Springer.

Chiang, C. L. and Lee, H. (2016) ‘The Effect of Project-Based Learning on Learning Motivation and Problem-Solving Ability of Vocational High School Students’, International Journal of Information and Education Technology, Vol. 6, No. 9, pp. 709–712. https://doi.org/10.7763/IJIET.2016.V6.779

Cohen, J. (1988) Statistical power analysis fort he behavioral sciences, 2nd edition, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum

Çalışkan, S. and Sezgin Selçuk, G. (2010) ‘Self-Regulated Strategies Used by Undergraduate Students in Physics Problems: Effects of Gender and University’, Dokuz Eylül University The Journal of Buca Faculty of Education, Vol. 27, pp. 50–62.

Ciolacu, M., Tehrani, A. F., Beer, R. and Popp, H. (2017) ‘Education 4.0-Fostering Student Performance with Machine Learning Methods’, IEEE 23nd International Symposium SIITME. https://doi.org/10.1109/SIITME.2017.8259941

Creswell, J. W. and Clark, V. L. P. (2016) Designing And Conducting Mixed Methods Research, New York: Sage.

Çekim, Z. and Aydın, S. (2018) ‘Investigation of the Relations between Middle School Student’s Motivation to Learn Science and Use of Learning Strategies’, Kırıkkale University Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 451–468.

Çokçalışkan, H. (2019) The effect of self-regulation based science teaching on primary school fourth-grade students' self-regulated learning skills, scientific processing skills and achievement, [PhD Thesis], Marmara University, İstanbul.

Dembo, M. H. and Eaton, M. J. (2000) ‘Self-regulation of academic learning in middle-level schools’, The Elementary School Journal, Vol. 100, No. 5, pp. 473–490. https://doi.org/10.1086/499651

Fraenkel, J. R. and Wallen, N. E. (2006) How to design and evaluate research in education, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Girgin, D. (2020) ‘Evaluation of project-based learning process of gifted children via reflective journals’, International Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 772–796.

Grant, A. M., Franklin, J. and Langford, P. (2002) ‘The self-reflection and insight scale: A new measure of private self-consciousness’, Social Behavior And Personality, Vol. 30, No. 8, 821–836. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2002.30.8.821

Gröpel, P., Baumeister, R. F. and Beckmann, J. (2014) ‘Action versus state orientation and self-control performance after depletion’, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 40, No. 4, pp. 476–487. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167213516636

Hargittai, E. and Shafer, S. (2006) ‘Differences in Actual and Perceived Online Skills: The Role of Gender’, Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 432–448. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6237.2006.00389.x

Heilbronner, N. N. (2009) Pathways in STEM: Factors Affecting the retention and attrition of talented men and women from the STEM pipeline, [PhD Thesis], University of Connecticut, USA.

Hilbert, M. (2014) ‘How Much of the Global Information and Communication Explosion is Driven by More, and How Much by Better Technology?’, Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, Vol. 65, No. 4, pp. 856–861. https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.23031

Hockett, J. A. (2009) ‘Curriculum For Highly Able Learners That Conforms To General Education And Education Quality İndicators’, Journal for the Education of the Gifted, Vol. 32, No. 3, 394–440. https://doi.org/10.4219/jeg-2009-857

Ilgaz, G. (2011) Investigation of elementary learners’ perceptions on self-regulated learning strategies, self-efficacy and learner autonomy in science and technology course, [PhD Thesis], Gazi University, Ankara.

Kirişçi, N. (2013) Self-regulated learning and motivational beliefs of gifted and normal intelligence level students on mathematics, [Ms Thesis], İstanbul University, İstanbul.

Kopp, C.B. (1982) ‘Antecedents of Self-Regulation: A Developmental Perspective’, Developmental psychology, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 199–214. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.18.2.199

Kutlu Abu, N. (2018) An evaluation of differentiated science activities for inclusion of gifted students, [PhD Thesis], Amasya University, Amasya.

Lee, I.S. (2002) ‘Gender Differences in Self-Regulated On-Line Learning Strategies within Korea’s University Context’, Educational Technology Research and Development, Vol. 50, No. 1, pp. 101–109. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02504967

Li, M., Zheng, C., Liang, J. C., Zhang, Y. and Tsai, C. C. (2018) ‘Conceptions, self-regulation, and strategies of learning science among Chinese high school students’, International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 69–87. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10763-016-9766-2

Lipovská H. and Fischer J. (2016) ‘Gifted Students and Human Capital Accumulation’, Journal on Efficiency and Responsibility in Education and Science, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 60–69, https://doi.org/10.7160/eriesj.2016.090302

Lynch, D. J. (2010) ‘Motivational Beliefs and Learning Strategies as Predictors of Academic Performance in College Physics’, College Student Journal, Vol. 44, No. 4, pp. 920–928.

Maloney, D. M., Ryan, A. and Ryan, D. (2021) ‘Developing Self-regulation skills in second level students engaged in threshold learning: results of a pilot study in Ireland’, Contemporary School Psychology, Vol. 25, pp. 109–123. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40688-019-00254-z

McClelland, M., Geldhof, J., Morrison, F., Gestsdóttir, S., Cameron, C., Bowers, E., Duckworth, A., Little, T. and Grammer, J. (2018) ‘Self-Regulation’, in Halfon, N., Forrest, C. B., Lerner, R. M. and Faustman, E. M. (ed.) Handbook of Life Course Health Development, Springer International Publishing: Cham, Germany, pp. 275–298. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-47143-3_12

Ministry of National Education [MoNE], (2018) Fen bilimleri dersi öğretim programı (İlkokul ve ortaokul 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 ve 8. Sınıflar) [Science lesson curriculum (Primary and secondary school 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8th Grades)]. Ankara: Millî Eğitim Bakanlığı Temel Eğitim Genel Müdürlüğü.

Moeder-Chandler, M. (2020) Teacher reflective practice and perceptions on overall job satisfaction [PhD Thesis], Trident University International.

Montalvo, F. T. and Torres, M. C. G. (2004) ‘Self Regulated Learning, Current and Future Directions’, Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 1–34.

Muis, K. R., Chevrier, M. and Singh, C. A. (2018) ‘The Role of Epistemic Emotions in Personal Epistemology and Self-Regulated Learning’, Educational Psychologist, Vol. 53, pp. 165–184. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2017.1421465

Noushad, P.P. (2008) Cognitions about cognitions: The theory of metacognition, [Online Submission], Available: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED502151.pdf [30 Sept 2020].

Obergriesser, S., Steinbach, J. and Stoeger, H. (2013) ‘Emotional experience during participation in a program of self-regulated learning’, Symposium at the 3rd International Conference on Talent Development and Excellence (ICTDE), Antalya, Turkey.

Oppong, E., Shore, B. M. and Muis, K. R. (2019) ‘Clarifying the Connections Among Giftedness, Metacognition, Self-Regulation, and Self-Regulated Learning: Implications for Theory and Practice’, Gifted Child Quarterly, Vol. 63, No. 2, pp. 102-119. https://doi.org/10.1177/0016986218814008

Pallant, J. (2016) SPSS kullanma kılavuzu SPSS ile adım adım veri analizi [SPSS survival manual a step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS], Ankara: Anı Publishing.

Parlak Yılmaz, N. (2005) ‘School Goal Structure - Teacher Scale Adapting Into Turkish’, Educational Sciences and Practice, Vol.4, No. 7, pp. 129–144.

Patrick, P. G. (2017) Informal Science Educators and the Nine Dimensions of Reflective Practice, in Patrick, P. G. (ed.) Preparing Informal Science Educators (pp. 41–65), Cham: Springer.

Philips, K. (2019) Teaching the Student, Salem Press Encyclopedia.

Pintrich, P. R., Smith, D. A. F., García, T. and McKeachie, W. J. (1991) A manual for the use of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, National Center for Research to Improve Postsecondary Teaching and Learning.

Posner, M. I. and Rothbart, M. K. (1998) ‘Attention, Self–regulation and Consciousness’, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 353, No. 1377, pp. 1915–1927. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1998.0344

Powers, E. A. (2008) ‘The use of independent study as a viable differentiation technique for gifted learners in the regular classroom’, Gifted Child Today, Vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 57–65.

Puncreobutr, V. (2016) ‘Education 4.0: New Challenge of Learning’, St. Theresa Journal of Humanities and Social Science, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 92–97.

Renzulli, J. (1986) ‘The three-ring conception of giftedness: A developmental model for creative productivity’, in Sternberg R. J. and Davidson J. E. (ed.), Conceptions of giftedness, pp. 51–92. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Renzulli, J. S. and Reis, S. M. (2000) ‘The Schoolwide Enrichment Model’, in Heller, K. A., Mönks, F. J., Sternberg R. J. and Subotnik, R. F. (ed.), International handbook of giftedness and talent, pp 367–382, Oxford, UK: Elsevier Science Ltd.

Rinn, A. N. and Bishop, J. (2015) ‘Gifted Adults: A Systematic Review and Analysis of the Literature.’ Gifted Child Quarterly, Vol. 59, No. 4, pp. 213–235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0016986215600795

Salovaara, H. (2005) Achievement goals and cognitive learning strategies in dynamic contexts of learning, [PhD Thesis], University of Oulu.

Schumacker, R. E. and Lomax R. G. (2004) A beginner's guide to structural equation modeling, New Jersey: Taylor & Francis; pp.1-8.

Schunk, D. H. (2009) Öğrenme teorileri, eğitimsel bir bakışla [Learning theories an educational perspective], Ankara: Nobel Yayın Dağıtım.

Schunk, D. H. and Zimmerman, B. J. (ed.) (1998) Self-regulated learning: From teaching to self-reflective practice, New York: Guilford Press.

Siegle, D. (2013) The underachieving gifted child: Recognizing, understanding, & reversing underachievement, Waco, TX: Prufrock Press.

Stoeger, H. and Ziegler, A. (2010) ‘Do Pupils with Differing Cognitive Abilities Benefit Similarly from a Self-regulated Learning Training Program?’, Gifted Educational International, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 110–123. https://doi.org/10.1177/026142941002600113

Stoltz, T., Piske, F., de Freitas, M., D’Aroz, M. and Machado, J. (2015) ‘Creativity in education: Contributions from Vygotsky and Piaget’, Creative Education, Vol. 6, pp. 64–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ce.2015.61005

Tabachnick, B. G. and Fidell, L. S. (2013) Using multivariate statistics, 6th edition, Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

Tanti, M., Syefrinando, B., Daryanto, M. and Salma, H. (2020) ‘Students’ self-regulation and motivation in learning science’, International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 865–873. https://doi.org/10.11591/ijere.v9i4.20657

Tezel Şahin, F. (2015) ‘A Study into Self Regulation Sufficiencies of the Students Attending to the College Physical Education and Sport’, International Journal of Sport Culture and Science, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 425–438. https://doi.org/10.14486/IJSCS406

Tortop, H. S. and Eker, C. (2014) ‘Why Should Self-regulated Learning Skills Take Place in Gifted Education Programs?’, Journal of Gifted Education Research, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 23–41.

Uzuntiryaki Kondakçı, E. and Çapa Aydın,Y. (2013) ‘Predicting Critical Thinking Skills of University Students Through Meta Cognitive Self-Regulation Skills and Chemistry Self-Efficacy’, Educational Sciences: Theory Practice, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 666–670.

Vaidya, S., Ambad, P. and Bhosle, S. (2018) ‘Industry 4.0-Glimpse’, Procedia Manufacturing, Vol. 20, pp. 233–238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.promfg.2018.02.034

Vialatte, F. and Cichocki, A. (2008) ‘Split-test Bonferroni correction for QEEG statistical maps’, Biological Cybernetics, Vol. 98, No. 4, pp. 295–303. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00422-008-0210-8

Winne, P. H. and Hadwin, A. F. (1998) ‘Studying As Self-Regulated Learning’, in Hacker, D. J., Dunlosky J. and Graesser, A. C. (ed.) Metacognition in educational theory and practice, pp. 279–306, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Wolters, C. A., Pintrich, P. R. and Karabenick, S. A. (2003) Assessing Academic Self-Regulated Learning. Conference on Indicators of Positive Development: Definitions, Measures, and Prospective Validity.

Yükseltürk, E. and Bulut, S. (2009) ‘Gender Differences in Self-Regulated Online Learning Environment’, Educational Technology & Society, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 12–22.

Zat, Z. (2018) Investigation the effectiveness of EMDR focused intervention program for increasing self regulated learning on self regulation and trauma symptoms of university students with traumatic experiences related to academic life, [Ms Thesis], Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Eskişehir.

Zimmerman, B.J. (1989) ‘A Social Cognitive View of Self-regulated Academic Learning’, Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 81, No. 3, pp. 329–339. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.81.3.329

Zimmerman, B.J. and Kitsantas, A. (2014) ‘Comparing Students’ Selfdiscipline and Self-regulation Measures and Their Prediction of Academic Achievement’, Contemporary Educational Psychology, Vol. 39, pp. 145–155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2014.03.004

Zumbrunn, S., Tadlock, J. and Roberts, E. D. (2011) Encouraging self-regulated learning in the classroom: review of literature, Metropolitan Educational Research Consortium (MERC).

Additional Files



How to Cite

Nacaroğlu, O., Bektaş, O. and Tüysüz, M. . (2021) ’Examination of Science Self-Regulation Skills of Gifted and Non-Gifted Students’, Journal on Efficiency and Responsibility in Education and Science, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 231–246 https://doi.org/10.7160/eriesj.2021.140403.



Research Paper