Antecedents of private university students’ satisfaction: The effects of traditional and electronic service quality
Keywords:private universities, traditional service quality, e-service quality, students’ satisfaction
High competition in the higher education sector, especially private universities, has brought a high attention to service quality that can increase students’ satisfaction and their retention rates. This study aimed to investigate the effect of traditional and electronic service quality of private universities in Jakarta on students’ satisfaction. A total of 151 students’ responses from three private universities in Jakarta were collected. A factor analysis with the Principal Component Analysis method with Varimax rotation, Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and Importance Performance Map Analysis (IPMA) were performed. The results proved that perceived value of traditional service quality and perceived web value significantly affected student satisfaction. The three indicators of perceived quality provided by administrative staff (b=0.198), perceived quality of university infrastructure (β=0.333), and perceived quality of support services (β=0.362) significantly affected students’ satisfaction while in the context of electronic service quality, only accessibility (β=0.469) and attractiveness (β=0.123) had significant effects on students’ satisfaction. Furthermore, the two-dimensional IPMA matrix indicated the dominance of importance (score=0.621) and performance (score=66.438) of perceived value over the perceived web value.
Abdullah, F. (2005) ‘HEdPERF versus SERVPERF: The quest for ideal measuring instrument of service quality in higher education sector’, Quality Assurance in education, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 305–328. http://doi.org/10.1108/09684880510626584
Abdullah, F. (2006) ‘The development of HEdPERF: a new measuring instrument of service quality for the higher education sector’, International Journal of Consumer Studies, Vol. 30, No. 6, pp. 569–581. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1470-6431.2005.00480.x
Akinci, S., Atilgan-Inan, E. and Aksoy, S. (2010) ‘Re-assessment of ES-Qual and E-RecS-Qual in a pure service setting’, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 63, No. 3, pp. 232–240. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2009.02.018
Al-Hawari, M. A. and Mouakket, S. (2010) ‘The influence of technology acceptance model (TAM) factors on students’ e-satisfaction and e-retention within the context of UAE e-learning’, Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 299–314. http://doi.org/10.1108/17537981011089596
Alemu, A. M. and Cordier, J. (2017) ‘Factors influencing international student satisfaction in Korean universities’, International Journal of Educational Development, Vol. 57, pp. 54–64. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2017.08.006
Asian Development Bank (2012) Private higher education across Asia: expanding access, searching for quality, Mandaluyong City: Asian Development Bank.
[BPS] Badan Pusat Statistik [Central Bureau of Statistic] (2017) Jumlah Perguruan Tinggi, Mahasiswa, dan Tenaga Edukatif (Negeri dan Swasta) di Bawah Kementrian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Menurut Provinsi tahun ajaran 2013/2014-2014/2015 [Number of Universities, Students, and Educational Personnel (State and Private) under the Ministry of Education and Culture by Province for the 2013/2014 – 2014/2015 academic year, [Online] Available: https://www.bps.go.id/statictable/2015/09/14/1839/jumlah-perguruan-tinggi-mahasiswa-dan-tenaga-edukatif-negeri-dan-swasta-di-bawah-kementrian-pendidikan-dan-kebudayaan-menurut-provinsi-2013-2014-2014-2015.html [4 Aug 2021].
Brochado, A. (2009) ‘Comparing alternative instruments to measure service quality in higher education’, Quality Assurance in education, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 174–190. http://doi.org/10.1108/09684880910951381
Broekhuizen, T. L. (2006) Understanding channel purchase intentions: measuring online and offline shopping value perceptions, Ridderkerk: Labyrinth Publications.
Calvo-Porral, C., Lévy-Mangin, J. P. and Novo-Corti, I. (2013) ‘Perceived quality in higher education: an empirical study’, Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol. 31, No. 6, pp. 601–619. http://doi.org/10.1108/MIP-11-2012-0136
Carrillat, F. A., Jaramillo, F. and Mulki, J. P. (2007) ‘The validity of the SERVQUAL and SERVPERF scales: A meta-analytic view of 17 years of research across five continents’, International Journal of Service Industry Management, Vol. 18, No. 5, pp. 472–490. http://doi.org/10.1108/09564230710826250
Chen, Y. H. (2011) ‘Undergraduates' perceptions and use of the university libraries Web portal: Can information literacy instruction make a difference?’, Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, Vol. 48, No. 1, pp. 1–10. http://doi.org/10.1002/meet.2011.14504801051
Chen, Y. H. (2015) ‘Testing the impact of an information literacy course: Undergraduates' perceptions and use of the university libraries’ web portal’, Library & Information Science Research, Vol. 37, No. 3, pp. 263–274. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.lisr.2015.04.002
Chin, W. W. (2010) ‘How to write up and report PLS analyses’, in Esposito Vinzi, V., Chin, W., Henseler, J. and Wang H. (ed.) Handbook of partial least squares (pp. 655–690), Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-32827-8_29
Cohen, J. (2013) Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences, New York: Routledge.
Darawong, C., Sanmaung, M. (2019) ‘Service quality enhancing student satisfaction in international programs of higher education institutions: A local student perspective’, Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 263–283. http://doi.org/10.1080/08841241.2019.1647483
Doña-Toledo, L., Luque-Martínez, T. and Del Barrio-García, S. (2017) ‘Antecedents and consequences of university perceived value, according to graduates: The moderating role of Higher Education involvement’, International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 535–565. http://doi.org/10.1007/s12208-017-0186-y
Donaldson, B. and McNicholas, C. (2004) ‘Understanding the postgraduate education market for UK‐based students: a review and empirical study’, Journal of Philanthropy and Marketing, Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 346–360. http://doi.org/10.1002/nvsm.259
Douglas, J. A., Douglas, A., McClelland, R. J. and Davies, J. (2015) ‘Understanding student satisfaction and dissatisfaction: an interpretive study in the UK higher education context’, Studies in Higher Education, Vol. 40, No. 2, pp. 329–349. http://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2013.842217
Farahat, T. (2012) ‘Applying the technology acceptance model to online learning in the Egyptian universities’, Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 64, pp. 95–104. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.11.012
Galeeva, R. B. (2016) ‘SERVQUAL application and adaptation for educational service quality assessments in Russian higher education’, Quality Assurance in Education, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 329–348. http://doi.org/10.1108/QAE-06-2015-0024
Gibbs, T. and Kharouf, H. (2020) ‘The value of co-operation: an examination of the work relationships of university professional services staff and consequences for service quality’, Studies in Higher Education, [published online], pp. 1–15. http://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2020.1725878
Goh, C. F., Leong, C. M., Kasmin, K., Hii, P. K., and Tan, O. K. (2017) ‘Students’ experiences, learning ourcomes, and satisfaction in e-learning’, Journal of e-earning and knowledge society, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 117–128. https://doi.org/10.20368/1971-8829/144
Gounaris, S. P. and Venetis, K. (2002) ‘Trust in industrial service relationships: behavioral consequences, antecedents and the moderating effect of the duration of the relationship’, Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 16, No. 7, pp. 636–655. http://doi.org/10.1108/08876040210447351
Hair Jr., J. F., Ringle, C. M. and Sarstedt, M. (2011) ‘PLS-SEM: indeed a silver bullet’. The Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, Vol. 19, No. 2, 139–152. http://doi.org/10.2753/MTP1069-6679190202
Hair Jr., J. F., Ringle, C. M. and Sarstedt, M. (2013) ‘Partial least squares structural equation modeling: Rigorous applications, better results and higher acceptance’, Long range planning, Vol. 46, No. 1-2, pp. 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lrp.2013.01.001
Hair Jr., J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. and Sarstedt, M. (2016) A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM), Los Angeles: Sage.
Headar, M. M., Elaref, N. and Yacout, O. M. (2013) ‘Antecedents and consequences of student satisfaction with e-learning: The case of private universities in Egypt’, Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 226–257. http://doi.org/10.1080/08841241.2013.867919
Joung, H.-W., Choi, E.-K., Wang, E. (2016) ‘Effects of perceived quality and perceived value of campus foodservice on customer satisfaction: Moderating role of gender’, Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 101–113. http://doi.org/10.1080/1528008X.2015.1042620
Kilburn, B., Kilburn, A. and Davis, D. (2016) ‘Building collegiate e-loyalty: The role of perceived value in the quality-loyalty linkage in online higher education’, Contemporary Issues in Education Research, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 95–102. http://doi.org/10.19030/cier.v9i3.9704
Leonnard, L., Daryanto, H. K., Sukandar, D. and Yusuf, E. Z. (2015) ‘The Loyalty Model of Private University Student’, International Research Journal of Business Studies, Vol. 7, No. 1. http://doi.org/10.21632/irjbs.7.1.55-68
Leonnard, S. E. (2018a) ‘Perceived service quality, perceived value for money, satisfaction and repurchase intention: an evaluation on private university services’, International Journal of Commerce and Finance, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 40–51.
Leonnard (2018b) ‘The performance of servqual to measure service quality in private university’, Journal on Efficiency and Responsibility in Education and Science, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 16–21. http://doi.org/10.7160/eriesj.2018.110103
Leonnard and Susanti, Y. F. (2019) ‘The Advocacy Model of Indonesian Chinese Students, the Affluent Market’, International Journal of Instruction, Vol. 12, No. 1. http://doi.org/10.29333/iji.2019.12140a
Liu, C. T., Guo, Y. M. and Hsieh, T. Y. (2010) ‘Measuring user perceived service quality of online auction sites’, The Service Industries Journal, Vol. 30, No. 7, pp. 1177–1197. http://doi.org/10.1080/02642060802617575
Loiacono, E. T., Watson, R. T. and Goodhue, D. L. (2002) ‘WebQual: A measure of website quality’, Marketing theory and applications, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 432–438.
Lunarindiah, G. (2018) ‘Pengaruh Corporate Image, Service Quality, Perceived Value terhadap Kepuasan dan Loyalitas Mahasiswa’ [The Influence of Corporate Image, Service Quality, Perceived Value Toward Student Satisfaction and Student Loyalty], Jurnal Manajemen dan Pemasaran Jasa, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 239–252. http://doi.org/10.25105/jmpj.v9i2.1460
Mulyono, H., Hadian, A., Purba, N. and Pramono, R. (2020) ‘Effect of Service Quality toward Student Satisfaction and Loyalty in Higher Education’, Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, Vol. 7, No. 10, pp. 929–938. http://doi.org/10.13106/jafeb.2020.vol7.no10.929
Munteanu, C., Ceobanu, C., Bobâlcă, C. and Anton, O. (2010) ‘An analysis of customer satisfaction in a higher education context’, International Journal of Public Sector Management, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 124–140. http://doi.org/10.1108/09513551011022483
Nasirun, N., Noor, S. M., Nor, Z. M., Ahmat, H. and Ahmad, Z. (2012) ‘Perceived Web Service Quality for Students' Portal in Higher Learning Institution’, International Proceedings of Economics Development and Research, Vol. 56, pp. 52–56.
Oebaidillah, S (2021) PTS dengan jumlah mahasiswa di bawah 1000 akan dimerger [Private universities with the number of students less than 1000 will be merged], [Online] Available: https://mediaindonesia.com/humaniora/401857/pts-dengan-jumlah-mahasiswa-di-bawah-1000-orang-akan-dimerger [13 Aug 2021].
Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A. and Berry, L. L. (1988) ‘Servqual: A multiple-item scale for measuring consumer perception of service quality’, Journal of retailing, Vol. 64, No. 1, pp. 12–40.
Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A. and Malhotra, A. (2005) ‘ES-QUAL: a multiple-item scale for assessing electronic service quality’, Journal of service research, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 213–233. http://doi.org/10.1177/1094670504271156
Podsakoff N. P., Podsakoff P. M., MacKenzie, S. B. and Klinger, R. L. (2013) ‘Are we really measuring what we say we're measuring? Using video techniques to supplement traditional construct validation procedures’, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 98, No. 1, pp. 99–113. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0029570
Ringle, C. M. and Sarstedt, M. (2016) ‘Gain more insight from your PLS-SEM results: The importance-performance map analysis’, Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol. 116, No. 9, pp. 1865–1886. http://doi.org/10.1108/IMDS-10-2015-0449
[RISTEKDIKTI] Kementerian Riset, Teknologi, dan Pendidikan Tinggi [Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education] (2019) Statistk Pendidikan Tinggi 2019 [Higher Education Statistics 2019]. Jakarta: Pustadin Iptek Dikti.
[Kemdikbud] Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan [Ministry of Education and Culture] (2014) Bantuan pemerintah untuk PTN dan PTS sesuai dengan amanat UU [Government assistance for state and private universities in accordance with the mandate of the law], [Online] Available: http://lldikti12.ristekdikti.go.id/2014/01/24/bantuan-pemerintah-untuk-ptn-dan-pts-sesuai-dengan-amanat-uu.html [4 Aug 2021].
Shauchenka, H. V., Bleimann, U., Knoll, M. and Clarke, N. L. (2010) ‘Service Quality Assessment in Distance Learning’, In INC, pp. 269–277.
Silva, G. M. and Goncalves, H. M. (2016) ‘Causal recipes for customer loyalty to travel agencies: Differences between online and offline customers’, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 69, No. 11, pp. 5512–5518. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2016.04.163
Sultan, P. and Yin Wong, H. (2010) ‘Service quality in higher education – a review and research agenda,’ International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 259–272. http://doi.org/10.1108/17566691011057393
Tenenhaus, M., Vinzi, V. E., Chatelin, Y. M. and Lauro, C. (2005) ‘PLS path modeling’, Computational statistics & data analysis, Vol. 48, No. 1, pp. 159–205. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.csda.2004.03.005
Walsh, G., Hennig-Thurau, T., Sassenberg, K. and Bornemann, D. (2010) ‘Does relationship quality matter in e-services? A comparison of online and offline retailing,’ Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 130–142. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2009.11.003
Wu, J. H., Tennyson, R. D. and Hsia, T. L. (2010) ‘A study of student satisfaction in a blended e-learning system environment’, Computers & Education, Vol. 55, No. 1, pp. 155–164. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2009.12.012
Yarimoglu, E. K. (2015) ‘A Review of Service and E-Service Quality Measurements: Previous Literature and Extension’, Journal of Economic & Social Studies (JECOSS), Vol. 5, No. 1. http://doi.org/10.14706/JECOSS115110
Yousapronpaiboon, K. (2014) ‘SERVQUAL: Measuring higher education service quality in Thailand,’ Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 116, pp. 1088–1095. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.350
Yoo, B. and Donthu, N. (2001) ‘Developing a scale to measure the perceived quality of an Internet shopping site (SITEQUAL),’ Quarterly journal of electronic commerce, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 31–45.
Zeithaml, V. A., Parasuraman, A. and Malhotra, A. (2002) ‘Service quality delivery through web sites: a critical review of extant knowledge’, Journal of the academy of marketing science, Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 362–375. http://doi.org/10.1177/009207002236911
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Leonnard
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors declare with this manuscript intended for publication to ERIES Journal that:
- all co-authors agree with the publication of the manuscript even after amendments arising from peer review;
- all co-authors agree with the posting of the full text of this work on the web page of ERIES Journal and to the inclusion of references in databases accessible on the internet;
- no results of other researchers were used in the submitted manuscript without their consent, proper citation, or acknowledgement of their cooperation or material provided;
- the results (or any part of them) used in the manuscript have not been sent for publication to any other journal nor have they already been published (or if so, that the relevant works are cited in this manuscript);
- submission of the manuscript for publication was completed in accordance with the publishing regulations pertaining to place of work;
- experiments performed comply with current laws and written consent of the Scientific Ethics Committee / National Animal Care Authority (as is mentioned in the manuscript submitted);
- grant holders confirm that they have been informed of the submitted manuscript and they agree to its publication.
Authors retain copyright and grant ERIES Journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the published work with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in ERIES Journal. Moreover, authors are able to post the published work in an institutional repository with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in ERIES Journal. In addition, authors are permitted and encouraged to post the published work online (e.g. institutional repositories or on their website) as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.