Burnout Syndrome and Dark Triad at Schools: Engineers as Teachers of Vocational Technical Subjects
Keywords:Burnout syndrome, Dark Triad, secondary school teachers, vocational technical subjects
The aim of the present study was to verify the relationship of three aversive personality traits - Machiavellianism, narcissism and psychopathy, nowadays known by experts as the Dark Triad and burnout syndrome on the sample of vocational technical subject teachers. The study was carried out on a sample of 241 participants (Mage = 44.53; SD = 10.29). Females represented 75.1% of all respondents (Mage = 44.48; SD = 10.02), males represented the remaining 24.9% of respondents (Mage = 42.36; SD = 11.8). The Slovak version of Short Dark Triad - SD3 and the adapted Slovak version of Maslach Burnout Inventory - HSS on the sample of helping professionals were administered. Significant positive relations of the Dark Triad traits with emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal satisfaction were identified. Regression analysis indicated the Dark Triad as a significant predictor of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, psychopathy was the most significant predictor. The Dark Triad concept predicted 58% of burnout syndrome’s variance.
Adams, L. Y. and Maykut, C. A. (2015) ‘Bullying: The antithesis of caring acknowledging the dark side of the nursing profession’, International Journal of Caring Sciences, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 765–773.
Al Aïn, S., Carré, A., Fantini-Hauwel, C., Baudouin, J. Y. and Besche-Richard, C. (2013) ‘What is the emotional core of the multidimensional Machiavellian personality trait?’, Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 4, 454, pp. 1–8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00454
Aloe, A. M., Shisler, S. M., Norris, B. D., Nickerson, A. B. and Rinker, T. W. (2014) ‘A multivariate meta-analysis of student misbehavior and teacher burnout’, Educational Research Review, Vol. 12, pp. 30–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2014.05.003
Amernic, J. H. and Craig, R. J. (2010) ‘Accounting as a facilitator of extreme narcissism’, Journal of business ethics, Vol. 96, No.1, pp. 79–93. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-010-0450-0
Anvari, M. R. A., Kalali, N. S. and Gholipour, A. (2011) ‘How does personality affect on job burnout?’, International Journal of Trade, Economics and Finance, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 115–119.
Arnold, K. A., Connelly, C. E., Walsh, M. M. and Martin Ginis, K. A. (2015) ‘Leadership styles, emotion regulation, and burnout’, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 481–490. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0039045
Babiak, P. (1995) ‘When psychopaths go to work: A case study of an industrial psychopath’, Applied Psychology, Vol. 44, No. 2, pp. 171–188. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.1995.tb01073.x
Bakir, B., Özer, M., Uçar, M., Güleç, M., Demir, C. and Hasde, M. (2003) ‘Relation between Machiavellianism and job satisfaction in a sample of Turkish physicians’, Psychological reports, Vol. 92, No. 3, pp. 1169–1175. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.2003.92.3c.1169
Bakker, A. B., Van Der Zee, K. I., Lewig, K. A. and Dollard, M. F. (2006) ‘The relationship between the big five personality factors and burnout: A study among volunteer counselors’, The Journal of social psychology, Vol. 146, No.1, pp. 31–50. https://doi.org/10.3200/SOCP.146.1.31-50
Bańka, A. and Orłowski, K. (2012) ‘The structure of the teacher Machiavellianism model in social interactions in a school environment’, Polish Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 43, No. 4, pp. 215–222. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10059-012-0024-3
Baran, G., Bıçakçı, M. Y., İnci, F., Öngör, M., Ceran, A. and Atar, G. (2010) ‘Analysis of burnout levels of teacher’, Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 9, pp. 975–980. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.12.270
Barnett, M. D. and Flores, J. (2016) ‘Narcissus, exhausted: Self-compassion mediates the relationship between narcissism and school burnout’, Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 97, pp. 102–108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.03.026
Baumeister, R. F., Heatherton, T. F. and Tice, D. M. (1994) Losing control: How and why people fail at self-regulation, San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Bavoľár, J. and Kačmár, P. (2020) ‘Pracovné ciele u pracujúcich’, Proceedings of the 19th international conference Work and Organizational Psychology 2020, Košice: Institute of Social Sciences, CSPS SAS, pp. 96–106. https://doi.org/10.31577/2020.978-80-89524-51-8.8
Berkovich, I. and Eyal, O. (2019) ‘Teachers’ Big Five personality traits, emotion regulation patterns, and moods: mediation and prototype analyses’, Research Papers in Education, Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1080/02671522.2019.1677758
Boddy, C. R. P. (2010) ‘Corporate psychopaths and organizational type’, Journal of Public Affairs, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 300–312. https://doi.org/10.1002/pa.365
Bratek, A., Bonk, M., Bulska, W., Tyrała, K., Seweryn, M. and Krysta, K. (2015) ‘" claw your way"- Machiavellianism among the medical community’, Psychiatria Danubina, Vol. 27, No.1, pp. 344–347.
Čopková, R. (2020) ‘The Dark Triad in Helping Professions – Comparison of Teachers and Pedagogy Students’, Journal of Women's Entrepreneurship and Education, No.1–2, pp. 125–141. https://doi.org/10.28934/jwee20.12.pp125-141
Čopková, R. and Araňošová, A. (2020) ‘The Relationship of Dark Triad and Job Satisfaction among Helping Professionals’, Človek a spoločnosť, Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 18–33. http://doi.org/10.31577/cas.2020.03.574
Čopková, R. and Šafár, L. (2021) ‘Psychomeric Propertios of the Slovak Version of Short Dark Triad (SD3)’, European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 649 – 666, https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11030047
Egorova, M. S. and Adamovich, T. V. (2019) ‘Factor Structure of The Short Dark Triad (SD3) in Adolescents’, The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 64, pp. 130–137. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.07.17
Fiorilli, C., Gabola, P., Pepe, A., Meylan, N., Curchod-Ruedi, D., Albanese, O. and Doudin, P. A. (2015) ‘The effect of teachers’ emotional intensity and social support on burnout syndrome. A comparison between Italy and Switzerland’, Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée/European Review of Applied Psychology, Vol. 65, No. 6, pp. 275–283. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erap.2015.10.003
Forsyth, D. R. and O’Boyle, E. H., Jr. (2012) ‘Ethics position theory and unethical work behavior’, in R. A. Giacalone and M. D. Promislo (ed.), Handbook of unethical work behavior: Implications for individual well-being (pp. 221–236), New York: M.E. Sharpe.
Furnham, A. (2010) The Elephant in the Boardroom: The Causes of Leadership Derailment. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan.
Furnham, A., Richards, S. C. and Paulhus, D. L. (2013) ‘The Dark Triad of personality: A 10 year review’, Social and Personality Psychology Compass, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 199–216. https://doi.org/10.1111/spc3.12018
Galperin, B. L., Bennett, R. J. and Aquino, K. (2011) ‘Status differentiation and the protean self: A social-cognitive model of unethical behavior in organizations’, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 98, No. 3, pp. 407–424. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-010-0556-4
Graf, E. M., Sator, M. and Spranz-Fogasy, T. (ed.) (2014) Discourses of helping professions, (Vol. 252), Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.252
Hogan, R. and Hogan, J. (2001) ‘Assessing leadership: A view from the dark side’, International Journal of Selection and Assessment, Vol. 9, No. 1–2, pp. 40–51. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2389.00162
Jakobwitz, S. and Egan, V. (2006) ‘The Dark Triad and normal personality traits’, Personality and Individual differences, Vol. 40, No. 2, pp. 331–339. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2005.07.006
Jonason, P. K., Slomski, S. and Partyka, J. (2012) ‘The Dark Triad at work: How toxic employees get their way’, Personality and individual differences, Vol. 52, No. 3, pp. 449–453. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2011.11.008
Kalinnikova, L., Saplavska, J., Zavodilov, A. and Rimkus, O. (2018) ‘Negative personality traits and self-monitoring among high school teachers’, Proceedings of International conference “Engineering for Rural Development”, Jelgava, pp. 1129–1135.
Kasáčová, B. (2004) Učiteľská profesia v trendoch teórie a praxe, Prešov: Metodicko-pedagogické centrum.
Kessler, S. R., Bandell, A. C., Spector, P. E., Borman, W. C., Nelson, C. E. and Penney, L. M. (2010) ‘Re-examining Machiavelli: A three-dimensional model of Machiavellianism in the workplace’, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 40, No. 8, pp. 1868–1896. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2010.00643.x
Kiazad, K., Restubog, S. L. D., Zagenczyk, T. J., Kiewitz, C. and Tang, R. L. (2010) ‘In pursuit of power: The role of authoritarian leadership in the relationship between supervisors’ Machiavellianism and subordinates’ perceptions of abusive supervisory behavior’, Journal of Research in Personality, Vol. 44, No. 4, pp. 512–519. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2010.06.004
Kopřiva, K. (1997) Lidský vztah mezi pracovníkem a klientem. Lidský vztah jako součast profese [The human relationship between the professional and the client. Human relationship as part of the helping profession], 2nd edition, Prague: Portál.
Kusý, P. and Báthoryová, D. (2013) ‘Potreba psychohygieny v pedagogických profesiách’ [The need for psychohygiene in pedagogical professions], Výzvy a inšpirácie v pedagogických vedách: Zborník príspevkov z X. medzinárodnej konferencie doktorandov, Nitra, pp. 198–204.
Law Act No. 138/2019; the Act on Educational and Professional Employees and on Changes and Supplements to Some Laws (2019), [Online], Available: https://www.minedu.sk/data/att/15401.pdf [10 Apr 2020]
Lee, K. and Ashton, M. C. (2014) ‘The dark triad, the big five, and the HEXACO model’, Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 67, pp. 2–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.01.048
Lee, K., Ashton, M. C., Wiltshire, J., Bourdage, J. S., Visser, B. A. and Gallucci, A. (2013) ‘Sex, power, and money: Prediction from the dark triad and honesty-humility’, European Journal of Personality, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 169–184. https://doi.org/10.1002/per.1860
Lenkov, S. L., Rubtsova, N. E. and Nizamova, E. S. (2018) ‘The Dark Triad Of Personality In Kindergarten, School And University Teachers’, ICPE 2018-International Conference on Psychology and Education, Moscow, pp. 352–367. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs(2357-1330).2018.11.2
Lichner, V. (2017) ‘Performed self-care in the context of resisting negative workplace consequences among Slovak social professionals’, Canadian International Journal of Social Science and Education, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 312–320.
Loonstra, B., Brouwers, A. and Tomic, W. (2009) ‘Feelings of existential fulfilment and burnout among secondary school teachers’, Teaching and Teacher Education, Vol. 25, No. 5, pp. 752–757. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2009.01.002
Magnano, P., Paolillo, A. and Barrano, C. (2015) ‘Relationships between personality and burn-out: an empirical study with helping professions’ workers’, International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Research, No. 1, pp. 10–19. https://doi.org/10.6000/2371-1655.2015.01.02
Maslach, C. and Leiter, M. P. (2010) ‘Burnout’, in Fink, G. (ed.). Stress consequences: Mental, neuropsychological and socioeconomic (pp. 726–729). New York, NY: Academic Press.
Maslach, C., Jackson, S. E., Leiter, M. P., Schaufeli, W. B. and Schwab, R. L. (1986) Maslach burnout inventory (Vol. 21, pp. 3463–3464), Palo Alto, CA: Consulting psychologists press.
Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W. B. and Leiter, M. P. (2001) ‘Job burnout’, Annual review of psychology, Vol. 52, No. 1, pp. 397–422. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.397
Malesza, M., Ostaszewski, P., Büchner, S. and Kaczmarek, M. C. (2019) ‘The adaptation of the Short Dark Triad personality measure–psychometric properties of a German sample’, Current Psychology, Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 855–864. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-017-9662-0
McLean, L., Taylor, M. and Jimenez, M. (2019) ‘Career choice motivations in teacher training as predictors of burnout and career optimism in the first year of teaching’, Teaching and Teacher Education, Vol. 85, No. 1, pp. 204–214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2019.06.020
Mirkovic, D. and Bianchi, R. (2019) ‘An exploratory study of the link between Machiavellianism and burnout’, Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 148, pp. 27–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2019.05.024
Morf, C. C. and Rhodenwalt, F. (2001) ‘Unraveling the paradoxes of narcissism: A dynamic self-regulatory processing model’, Psychological Inquiry, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 177–196. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327965PLI1204_1
O'Boyle, E. H., Jr., Forsyth, D. R., Banks, G. C., and McDaniel, M. A. (2012) ‘A meta-analysis of the Dark Triad and work behavior: A social exchange perspective’, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 97, No. 3, pp. 557–579. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025679
Odiakosa, T. (2018) Examining Associations between the Dark Triad and the Big Five Personality Traits, [Online], Available: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/337889195_Examining_Associations_between_the_Dark_Triad_and_the_Big_Five_Personality_Traits [21 Jan 2020]
Oluf, G.-A. and Furnham, A. (2015) ‘The relationship between bright-and dark-side personality traits’, Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 87, pp. 206–211. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.08.002
Paulhus, D. L. and Williams, K. M. (2002) ‘The dark triad of personality: Narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy’, Journal of Research in Personality, Vol. 36, No. 6, pp. 556–563. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0092-6566(02)00505-6
Pegrum, J. and Pearce, O. (2015) ‘A stressful job: are surgeons psychopaths?’, The Bulletin of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, Vol. 97, No. 8, pp. 331–334. https://doi.org/10.1308/rcsbull.2015.331
Prusik, M. and Szulawski, M. (2019) ‘‘The relationship between the Dark Triad personality traits, motivation at work, and burnout among HR recruitment workers’, Frontiers in psychology, Vol. 10, 1290. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01290
Ráczová, B. and Köverová, M. (2020) ‘A confirmatory factor analysis of the Slovak version of the MBI-HSS for helping professions’, Československá psychologie, Vol. 64, No .3, pp. 272–287.
Rohani, A. R. (2017) A survey of the big five personality traits among elementary teachers [Master’s thesis, Online], Available: http://stars.library.ucf.edu/honorstheses/257 [20 May 2019]
Rosenthal, S. A. and Pittinsky, T. L. (2006) ‘Narcissistic leadership’, The leadership quarterly, Vol. 17, No. 6, pp. 617–633. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2006.10.005
Rothmann, S. and Storm, K. (2003) ‘The relationship between burnout, personality traits and coping strategies in a corporate pharmaceutical group’, SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Vol. 29, No. 4, pp. 35–42. https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v29i4.128
Sears, S. F., Urizar, G.G. and Evans, G.D. (2000) ‘Examining a stress-cping model of burnout and depression in extension agents’, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 56–62. https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-89188.8.131.52
Selingson, A.G. (1992) ‘The narcissistic therapist meets a narcissistic patient’, Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 221–221. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00945987
Schwarzkopf, K., Straus, D., Porschke, H., Znoj, H., Conrad, N., Schmidt-Trucksäss, A. and Von Känel, R. (2016) ‘Empirical evidence for a relationship between narcissistic personality traits and job burnout’, Burnout Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 25–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.burn.2015.12.001
Skaalvik, E. M. and Skaalvik, S. (2010) ‘Teacher self-efficacy and teacher burnout: A study of relations’, Teaching and teacher education, Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 1059–1069. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2009.11.001
Tamban, V. E. and Banasihan, G. L. (2017) ‘Big Five Personality Traits And Teaching Performance Of Faculty Of College Of Teacher Education, Laguna State Polytechnic University’, International Journal of Research – GRANTHAALAYAH, Vol. 5, No. 9, pp. 99–105. https://doi.org/10.29121/granthaalayah.v5.i9.2017.2209
Tan, S., Mansi, A. and Furnham, A. (2018) ‘Students’ preferences for lecturers’ personalities’, Journal of Further and Higher Education, Vol. 42, No. 3, pp. 429–438. https://doi.org/10.1080/0309877X.2017.1301406
Travers, C. J. and Cooper, C. L. (1993) ‘Mental health, job satisfaction and occupational stress among UK teachers’, Work & Stress, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 203–219. https://doi.org/10.1080/02678379308257062
Van Horn, J. E., Schaufeli, W. B. and Enzmann, D. (1999) ‘Teacher burnout and lack of reciprocity’, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 91–108. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1999.tb01376.x
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Radka Čopková
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors declare with this manuscript intended for publication to ERIES Journal that:
- all co-authors agree with the publication of the manuscript even after amendments arising from peer review;
- all co-authors agree with the posting of the full text of this work on the web page of ERIES Journal and to the inclusion of references in databases accessible on the internet;
- no results of other researchers were used in the submitted manuscript without their consent, proper citation, or acknowledgement of their cooperation or material provided;
- the results (or any part of them) used in the manuscript have not been sent for publication to any other journal nor have they already been published (or if so, that the relevant works are cited in this manuscript);
- submission of the manuscript for publication was completed in accordance with the publishing regulations pertaining to place of work;
- experiments performed comply with current laws and written consent of the Scientific Ethics Committee / National Animal Care Authority (as is mentioned in the manuscript submitted);
- grant holders confirm that they have been informed of the submitted manuscript and they agree to its publication.
Authors retain copyright and grant ERIES Journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the published work with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in ERIES Journal. Moreover, authors are able to post the published work in an institutional repository with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in ERIES Journal. In addition, authors are permitted and encouraged to post the published work online (e.g. institutional repositories or on their website) as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.