• L. N. A. Chandana Jayawardena Tomas Bata University in Zlin, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
  • R. H. Kuruppuge University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka



Study Process Approaches, Gender, Syllabus, Academic Performances, High schools


The objective of the study was to examine the impact of gender-wise and syllabus-wise study approaches in academic performances of high school students. Study involved ninety high school students (45 girls, and 45 boys) randomly selected from two high schools in Galle, and Gampaha, Sri Lanka. Study process of respondents was measured by employing the ‘revised two-factor Study Process Questionnaire’ of Biggs (2001). Descriptive and inferential analyses of data were conducted by using the SPSS software. The Study Approaches (including study motives, and study strategies) employed by respondents during the study process were examined. Relationships were tested among study process variables pertaining to the gender, and syllabus of respondents and their academic performances. High School girls have indicated deeper study methodologies in comparison to the boys. Science stream students recorded deeper study methodologies, and Arts stream students recorded surface study methodologies. Girls recorded superior examination results over boys. A positive relationship was found between the surface study approach and Academic performances of girls. Study highlights the necessity of defining, and applying integrated study process approaches, and evaluation techniques for the vitality of education.


Armstrong, S.J. (1999) ’The influence of individual cognitive style on performance in management education’, Proceedings of the 4th Annual Conference of the European Learning Styles Information Network, University of Central Lancashire, 28-29 June, pp. 31-50.

Biggs, J.B. (1993) ’What do inventories of students’ learning processes really measure? A theoretical review and clarification’, British Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 1-17.

Biggs, J.B. (1999) Teaching for quality learning at University, Buckingham: Open university press.

Biggs, J.B. Kember, D. Leung, D.Y.P. (2001). ’The revised two-factor Study Process Questionnaire: R-SPQ-2F’, British Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 133-149.

Bowles, S., Gintis, H. (1999), ‘Comments on the long shadow of work’, Critical Sociology, vol. 25, pp. 3-7.

Cassidy, S., Eachus, P. (1999) ‘Learning style, academic belief systems, self-report student proficiency and academic achievement in higher education’, Proceedings of the 4th Annual Conference of the European Learning Styles Information Network, University of Central Lancashire, 28-29 June, pp. 125-40.

Entwistle, N. Waterston, S. (1988) ‘Approaches to studying and levels of processing in university students’, British Journal of Educational psychology, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 258–265.

Forehand, M. (2005) ‘Blooms Taxonomy: Original and Revised’, In. Orey, M. (eds), Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching, and Technology. Available : [25 Aug 2012]

GCE Advanced Level in Sri Lanka, (2012) Retrieved from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, Available:

Marburger, D.R. (2001) ‘Absenteeism and undergraduate exam performance’, Journal of Economic Education, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 99-109.

National Report, (2004). The Development of Education, (pp. 1-3), Ministry of Education Sri Lanka.

Poropat, A.E.  (2011) ‘The role of citizenship performance in academic achievement and graduate employability’, Education + Training, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 499-514.

Schmulian, A., Coetzee, S. (2011) ‘Class absenteeism: reasons for non-attendance and the effect on academic performance’, Accounting Research Journal, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 178-194.

Spicer, D.P. (2004) ‘The impact of approaches to learning and cognition on academic performance in business and management’, Education + Training, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 194-205.

Sugahara, S., Boland, G. (2010) ‘The role of cultural factors in the learning style preferences of accounting students: a comparative study between Japan and Australia’, Accounting Education: An International Journal, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 235-255.

van Zwanenberg, N., Wilkinson, L.J., Anderson, A. (1999), ‘Felder and Silverman’s Index of Learning Styles and Honey and Mumford’s Learning Styles Questionnaire: how do they compare and do they predict academic performance?’, Proceedings of the 4th Annual Conference of the European Learning Styles Information Network, University of Central Lancashire, 28-29 June, pp. 423-441.

Whitmire, E. (2001) ‘The relationship between undergraduates’ background characteristics and college experiences and their academic library use’, College & Research Libraries, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 528-540.

Wikipedia contributors. (2012). ‘Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory’, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Available: and oldid=503581691

Additional Files



How to Cite

Chandana Jayawardena, L. N. A. and Kuruppuge, R. H. (2012) ’GENDER AND SYLLABUS BASED STUDY APPROACHES AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCES’, Journal on Efficiency and Responsibility in Education and Science, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 115–124.



Research Paper