Indices Converting Resignation and Drop-Offs of Business Students to Retention
Keywords:attitudes, behaviour, retention, student, university
Each new generation brings a challenge to employers, university management and teachers with new attitudes affecting their continuous matriculation and degree completion. This article discusses how to retain both business and institutional career-oriented students using real-time communication based on their attitudes, emotions resulting from logically generated synonyms by automatic data evaluation by the information system. The objective of this article is to identify these students early in their academic studies and to assess their likelihood for continuous matriculation and ultimately increase retention rates. Using data from entry questionnaire during application at university, based on their attitudinal expectation, students were categorised into groups that affected their continuous matriculation. Data used in this study were gathered by compulsory entry questionnaire of 535 students in the academic year 2017-2018. Using statistical and dimensional analysis, four groups were identified among university applicants: Proactive, Reactive, Lazy and Institutional. Responses were tested according to Complementary Distribution Function (CDF) and normal distribution as Probabilistic Distribution Function (PDF). Antagonist attitudes were found for answers corresponding to PDF and CDF. Results indicate that business and institutionally oriented students should be separated and treated individually to increase retention.
Agbola, F. W. and Cheng, C. (2017) ‘Student’s local top-up higher education choices’, Studies in Continuing Education, Vol. 39, No. 3, pp. 333-356. https://doi.org/10.1080/0158037x.2017.1336994
Aghakhani, H. and Main, K. J. (2019) ‘Can two negatives make a positive? Social exclusion prevents carryover effects from deceptive advertising’, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Vol. 47, pp. 206-214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2018.11.021
AMA (2013) Marketing definitions, [Online], Accessed 19 April 2019. Available at: https://www.ama.org/the-definition-of-marketing/ [19 Apr 2019].
Aregbeyen, O. (2010) ‘Students perceptions of effective teaching and effective lecturer characteristics at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria’, Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 62-69. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjssci.2010.62.69
Asma, L. (2017) ‘There is No Free Won't the Role Definitions Play’, Journal of Consciousness Studies, Vol. 24, No. 5-6, pp. 8-23.
Astington, J. W. (1993) The developing child. The child's discovery of the mind. Cambridge, MA, US: Harvard University Press.
Bass, F. (1969) ‘A new product growth model for consumer durables’, Management Science, Vol. 15, No. 5, pp. 215–227. https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.1040.0264
Barnett, E., Moyers, T. B., Sussman, S., Smith, C., Rohrbach L. A., Sun, P. and Spruijt-Metz, D. (2014) ‘From counselor skill to decreased marijuana use: Does change talk matter?’, Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, Vol. 46, No. 4, pp. 498-505. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2013.11.004
Benford, R. D. and Snow, D. A. (2000) ‘Framing processes and social movements: an overview and assessment’, Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 26, pp. 611-639. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.26.1.611
Boronczyk, F. and Breuer, C. (2019) ‘The company you keep: Brand image transfer in concurrent event sponsorship’, Journal of Business Research, [In Press, Corrected Proof]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.03.022
Chang, C. (2017) ‘How salient pictures in magazine advertisements bias consumers' preference construction: A comparison with product pages in e‐stores applying dual system model’, Journal of Consumer Behaviour, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 123-140. https://doi.org/10.1002/cb.1696
Colicev, A., Kumar, A. and O'Connor, P. (2019) ‘Modeling the relationship between firm and user generated content and the stages of the marketing funnel’, International Journal of Research in Marketing, Vol. 36. No. 1, pp. 100-116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijresmar.2018.09.005
Collins, T. W., Grineski, S. E., Shenberger, J. Shenberger, J., Morales, X., Morera, O. F. and Echegoyen, L. E. (2017) ‘Undergraduate Research Participation Is Associated With Improved Student Outcomes at a Hispanic-Serving Institution’, Journal of college student development, Vol. 58, No. 4, pp. 583-600. https://doi.org/10.1353/csd.2017.0044
Deveci, H. (2015) ‘Value education through distance learning: Opinions of students who already completed value education’, Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 112-126. https://doi.org/10.17718/tojde.89079
Disman, M. (2002) Jak se vyrábí sociologická znalost. Praha: Karolinum.
Duong, M. Q., Wu, C. L. and Hoang, M. K. (2017) ‘Student inequalities in Vietnamese higher education? Exploring how gender, socioeconomic status, and university experiences influence leadership efficacy’, Innovations in Education and Teaching International, Vol. 56, No. 1, pp. 110-120. https://doi.org/10.1080/14703297.2017.1377098
Dylman, A. S. and Barry, C. (2018) ‘When having two names facilitates lexical selection: Similar results in the picture-word task from translation distractors in bilinguals and synonym distractors in monolinguals’, Cognition, Vol. 171, pp. 151–171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2017.09.014
Esparza, G. G., De-Luna, A., Zezzatti, A. O., Hernandez, A., Ponce, J., Álvarez, M. Cossio, E. and Nava, J. J. (2018) ‘A sentiment analysis model to analyze students reviews of teacher performance using support vector machines’, Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 620, pp. 157-164. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62410-5_19
Fenn, J. (2007) Understanding Gartner's Hype Cycles, Gartner Research ID: G00144727.
Fetterman, A. K., Curtis, S., Carre, J. and Sassenberg, K. (2019) ‘On the willingness to admit wrongness: Validation of a new measure and an exploration of its correlates’, Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 138, pp. 193-202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2018.10.002
Fischer, D. J. and Moyers, T. B. (2014) ‘Is there an association between empathic speech and change talk in motivational interviewing?’, Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 3-18. https://doi.org/10.1080/07347324.2014.856225
Fujii, S, Gärling, T, (2003) ‘Development of script-based travel mode choice after forced change’, Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 117-124. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1369-8478(03)00019-6
Fürstenberg, S., Schick, K., Deppermann, J., Prediger, S., Berberat, P. O., Kadmon, M. and Harendza, S. (2017) ‘Competencies for first year residents - Physicians' views from medical schools with different undergraduate curricula’, BMC Medical Education, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 154. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-017-0998-9
Graham, J., Haidt, J. and Nosek, B. A. (2009) ‘Liberals and conservatives rely on different sets of moral foundations’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 96, No. 5, pp. 1029–1046. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015141
Guerin, C., Jayatilaka, A., Ranasinghe, D., McCulloch A. and Calder, P. (2017) ‘Research degrees in Information and Communication Technology (ICT): Why so few doctoral students?’, Journal of Further and Higher Education, Vol. 41, No. 5, pp. 625-641. https://doi.org/10.1080/0309877X.2016.1159290
Hair J. F. (2011) ‘Multivariate Data Analysis: An Overview’, in Lovric M. (ed.) International Encyclopedia of Statistical Science, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-04898-2
Hong, J. C., Tai, K. H., Hwang, M. Y. and Kuo, Y. C. (2016) ‘Internet cognitive failure affects learning progress as mediated by cognitive anxiety and flow while playing a Chinese antonym synonym game with interacting verbal-analytical and motor-control’, Computers & Education, Vol. 100, pp. 32-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2016.04.009
Kahneman, D. (2012) Thinking, fast and slow, London: Penguin Books.
Kember, D., Hong, C., Yau, V. W. K. and Ho, S. A. (2017) ‘Mechanisms for promoting the development of cognitive, social and affective graduate attributes’, Higher Education, Vol. 74, No. 5, pp. 799-814. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-016-0077-x
Kim, M. K., Kim, S. M., Khera, O. and Getman, J. (2014) ‘The experience of three flipped classrooms in an urban university: an exploration of design principles’, Internet and Higher Education, Vol. 22, pp. 37–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2014.04.003
Kotler, P. (1991) Marketing Management, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall International Editions.
Lee, Y., Ho, F. N. and Wu, M. (2018) ‘How do form and functional newness affect adoption preference? the moderating role of consumer need for uniqueness’, The Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 79–90. http://doi.org/10.1108/JCM-10-2015-1578
Libet, B. (1985) ‘Unconscious cerebral initiative and the role of conscious will in voluntary action’, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 529–539. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0140525x00044903
Liu, J., Liao, X., Huang, W. and Liao, X. (2019) ‘Market segmentation: A multiple criteria approach combining preference analysis and segmentation decision’, Omega, Vol. 83, pp. 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.omega.2018.01.008
Lloyd-Smith, P. and Adamowicz, W. (2018) ‘Can stated measures of willingness-to-accept be valid? Evidence from laboratory experiments’, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Vol. 91, pp. 133-149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeem.2018.07.003
Lutz, R. J. MacKenzie, S. B. and Belch, G. E. (1983) ‘Attitude toward the ad as a mediator of advertising effectiveness: Determinants and consequences’, Advances in consumer research, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 532-539.
Luu, N., Ngo, L. V. and Cadeaux, J. (2018) ‘Value synergy and value asymmetry in relationship marketing programs’, Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 68, pp. 165-176. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indmarman.2017.10.011
MacKenzie, S. B. and Lutz, R. J. (1989) ‘An Empirical Examination of the Structural Antecedents of Attitude Toward the Ad in an Advertising Pretesting Context’, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 53, No. 2, pp. 48-65. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224298905300204
Magill, M., Apodaca, T. R., Borsari, B., Gaume, J., Hoadley, A., Gordon, R. E. F., Tonigan, J. S. and Moyers, T. (2018) ‘A meta-analysis of motivational interviewing processes: Technical, relational, and conditional process models of change’, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 86, No. 2, pp. 140-157. https://doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000250
Magill, M., Apodaca, T. R., Karno, M., Gaume, J., Durst, A., Walthers, J., Stout, R. L. and DiClemente, C. (2016) ‘Reliability and validity of an observational measure of client decisionmaking: The client language assessment – Proximal/distal (CLA-PD)’, Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, Vol. 63, pp. 10–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2015.12.006
Maloney, C. (2010) The secret to accelerating diffusion of innovation: the 16% rule explained, [online], Available: https://innovateordie.com.au/2010/05/10/the-secret-to-accelerating-diffusion-of-innovation-the-16-rule-explained/ [3 March 2020].
Mehta, A. (2000) ‘Advertising Attitudes and Advertising Effectiveness’, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 40, No. 3, pp. 67-72. https://doi.org/10.2501/jar-40-3-67-72
Menon, M. E., Markadijs, E., Theodoropoulos, N. and Socratous, M. (2017) ‘Influences on the intention to enter higher education: the importance of expected returns’, Journal of Further and Higher Education, Vol. 41, No. 6, pp. 831-843. https://doi.org/10.1080/0309877x.2016.1188897
Muehling, D. D. (1987) ‘An Investigation Of Factors Underlying Attitude-Toward-Advertising-In-General’, Journal of Advertising, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 32-40. https://doi.org/10.1080/00913367.1987.10673058
Pezoa-Fuentes, C. and Vidal-Suñé, A. (2017) ‘Cluster perpetuation: Maintenance of competitive advantages over time. The case of Chile's large north’, Resources Policy, Vol. 54, pp. 176-188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resourpol.2017.10.001
Reifkind, B. (2018) Ghosting has hit the office, [Online], Available: https://www.linkedin.com/feed/news/ghosting-has-hit-the-office-4760330/ [20 Dec 2018].
Roggers, E. M. (1983) Diffusion of Innovations, London: The Free Press.
Sayer, A. (2011) Why things matter to people: Social science, values and ethical life, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Schulz, C. and Dellnitz, A. (2017) ‘Attribution Model of Online Advertising’, In Yang, K. (ed.) Multi-Platform Advertising Strategies in the Global Marketplace. Hershey, PA: IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-3114-2.ch009
Schumpeter, J. A. (1926) Theorie der wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung, München and Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot.
Staiculescu, C. and Dobrea, R. C. (2017) ‘Impact of the career counselling services on employability’, European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Vol. 23, pp. 938-945.
Stevens, A. and Zampini, G. F. (2018) ‘Drug policy constellations: A Habermasian approach for understanding English drug policy’, International Journal of Drug Policy, Vol. 57, pp. 61–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2018.03.030
Taleb, N. N. (2013) Antifragile, London: Penguin Books.
Thatcher, I., Alao, H., Brown, C., I. and Choudhary, S. (2016) ‘Enriching the values of micro and small business research projects: co-creation service provision as perceived by academic, business and student’, Studies in Higher Education, Vol. 41, No. 3, pp. 560-581. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2014.942273
Tolfsten, C. C., Baker, N., Kreibich, C. and Amdam, G. V. (2011) ‘Flight restriction prevents associative learning deficits but not changes in brain protein-adduct formation during honeybee ageing’, Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 214, No. 8, pp. 1322-1332. https://doi.org/10.1016/10.1242/jeb.049155
Tversky, A. and Kahneman, D. (1983) ‘Extensional versus intuitive reasoning: The conjunction fallacy in probability judgment’, Psychological Review, Vol. 90, No. 4, pp. 293-315. https://doi.org/10.1037//0033-295x.90.4.293
Villarosa-Hurlocker, M. C., O'Sickey, A. J., Houck, J. M. and Moyers, T. B. (2019) ‘Examining the influence of active ingredients of motivational interviewing on client change talk’, Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, Vol. 96, pp. 39-45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2018.10.001
Wang, Z., Busemeyer, J. R., Atmanspacher, H. and Pothos, E. (2013) ‘The Potential of Using Quantum Theory to Build Models of Cognition’, Topics in Cognitive Sciences, Vol. 5, No. 4, pp. 672-688. https://doi.org/10.1111/tops.12043
Waring, A. (2019) ‘The five pillars of occupational safety & health in a context of authoritarian socio-political climates’, Safety Science, Vol. 117, pp. 152-163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2019.04.008
Yu, L. C., Lee, L. H., Yeh, J. F., Shih, H. M. and Lai, Y. L. (2016) ‘Near-synonym substitution using a discriminative vector space model’, Knowledge-Based Systems, Vol. 106, pp. 74–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.knosys.2016.05.025
Zhang, L., Cao, T. and Wang, Y. (2018) ‘The mediation role of leadership styles in integrated project collaboration: An emotional intelligence perspective.’ International Journal of Project Management, Vol. 36, No. 2, pp. 317-330. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2017.08.014
How to Cite
Authors declare with this manuscript intended for publication to ERIES Journal that:
- all co-authors agree with the publication of the manuscript even after amendments arising from peer review;
- all co-authors agree with the posting of the full text of this work on the web page of ERIES Journal and to the inclusion of references in databases accessible on the internet;
- no results of other researchers were used in the submitted manuscript without their consent, proper citation, or acknowledgement of their cooperation or material provided;
- the results (or any part of them) used in the manuscript have not been sent for publication to any other journal nor have they already been published (or if so, that the relevant works are cited in this manuscript);
- submission of the manuscript for publication was completed in accordance with the publishing regulations pertaining to place of work;
- experiments performed comply with current laws and written consent of the Scientific Ethics Committee / National Animal Care Authority (as is mentioned in the manuscript submitted);
- grant holders confirm that they have been informed of the submitted manuscript and they agree to its publication.
Authors retain copyright and grant ERIES Journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the published work with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in ERIES Journal. Moreover, authors are able to post the published work in an institutional repository with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in ERIES Journal. In addition, authors are permitted and encouraged to post the published work online (e.g. institutional repositories or on their website) as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.