How University Graduation Shapes Attitudes Toward Employment in Different Generations Operating at Job Market?


  • Markéta Šnýdrová This contribution was supported by project of Centre of Economic Studies of University of Economics and Management, grant no. GCES1117.
  • Lucie Depoo Department of Management, University of Economics and Management
  • Ivana Šnýdrová Department of Human Resources, University of Economics and Management



age, generation, graduate, job position, labor market, occupational employment


The article deals with the evaluation of university graduates’ attitudes towards job characteristics based on their generation. Research shows that the attitudes of individuals in the labor market are currently changing. However, the question is to what extent this change is related to the entry of a new generation or to what extent generational affiliation plays a role in the different attitudes of individuals in the labor market. Therefore, the aim is to test the proposition whether the age of a graduate, respectively his / her affiliation to the generation X, Y or Z affects attitudes towards job characteristics. The partial goal of the article is to identify the main attitudes of searched generations to employment, the second partial goal is to identify attitudes to the evaluation of the benefits of university study in relation to employment. This paper evaluates data from the case study of a selected business university. The return rate of primary survey was representative for the graduates of the case university. The results obtained were statistically tested. Analysis of differences between age and selected factors was used. The analysis showed statistically significant differences between members of generation X, Y and Z in all investigated factors.


Anderson, H. J., Baur, J. A., Griffith, J. A. and Buckley, M. R. (2017) ‘What works for you may not work for (Gen)Me: Limitations of present leadership theories for the new generation’, The Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 245–260.

Becton, J. B., Walker, H. J. and Jones-Farmer, A. (2014) ‘Generational differences in workplace behavior’, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 44, No. 3, pp.175–189.

Benson, J. and Brown, M. (2011) ‘Generations at work: are there differences and do they matter?’, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 22, No. 9, pp. 1843–1865.

Bencsik, A., Horváth-Csikós, G. and Juhász, T., (2016) ‘Y a Z generation in Workplace’, Journal of Competitiveness, Vol. 8, No 3, pp. 90– 06.

Deloitte (2020) Survey: Deloitte MillenialSurvey, [online], Available: [8 Jan 2021].

Donia, M. B. L. and Tetrault Sirsly, C. A. (2016) ‘Determinants and consequences of employee attributions of corporate social responsibility as substantive or symbolic’, European Management Journal, Vol. 34, No. 3, pp. 232–242.

Campbell, S., M., Twenge, J., M. and Campbell, W. K. (2017) ‘Fuzzy But Useful Constructs: Making Sense of the Differences Between Generations’, Work, Aging and Retirement, Vol. 3, No 2, pp.130–139.

Czech Statistical Office. (2019) Míry zaměstnanosti, nezaměstnanosti a ekonomické aktivity - říjen 2019 [Employment, unemployment and economic activity rates - October 2019], [Online], Available: [19 Oct 2020].

Ferri-Reed, J. (2010) ‘The keys to engaging millennials’, Journal for Quality and Participation, Vol. 33, No.1, pp. 31–33.

Fryer, L. K., Van den Broeck, A., Ginns, P. and Nakao, K. (2016) ‘Understanding Students’ Instrumental Goals, Motivation Deficits and Achievement: Through the Lens of a Latent Profile Analysis’, Psychologica Belgica, Vol. 56, No. 3, pp. 226–243.

Glazer, S., Mahoney, A. C. and Randall, Y. (2019) ‘Employee development’s role in organizational commitment: a preliminary investigation comparing generation X and millennial employees’, Industrial and Commercial Training, Vol. 51, No. 1, pp. 1–12.

Gadomska-Lila, K. (2020) ‘Value Systems of Various Generations’, Human Resource Management / Zarzadzanie Zasobami Ludzkimi, Vol. 133 No. 2, pp. 27–40.

Gurau, C. (2012) ‘A life-stage analysis of consumer loyalty profile: comparing Generation X and Millennial consumers’, Journal Consumer Marketing, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 103–113.

Gursoy, D., Geng-Quing Chi, Ch., and Karadag. (2013) ‘Generational differences in work values and attitudes among frontline and service contact employees’, International Journal of hospitality management, Vol. 32, pp. 40–48.

Horváthová, P. and Čopíková, A. (2015) ‘Generation Y and its impact on the performance of personnel activities’, 15th International Scientific Conference on Globalization and its socio-economic consequences, Žilina, pp. 218–223.

Iorgolescu, M. C. (2016) ‘Generation Z and its perception of work’, Cross-Cultural management Journal, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 47–54.

Ismail, M., Rahim, A. N. A., Lee, K. H. and Mohd Thahrir, N. F. (2016) ‘Cultural values and career goals of gen-X and gen-Y employees: evidence from selected Malaysian companies’, Organizations and Markets in emerging economies, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp.43–64.

Jones, D. A., Willness, C. R. and Madey, S. (2014) ‘Why are job seekers attracted by corporate social performance? Experimental and field tests of three signal-based mechanisms’, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 57, pp. 383-04.

Judge, T. A. and Kammeyer-Mueller, J. D. (2012) ‘On the value of aiming high: The causes and consequences of ambition’. Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 97, No. 4, pp. 758–775.

Kirovová, I. (2011) ‘Od tradiční kariéry k současným kariérním koncepcím’, Československá Psychologie, Vol. 55, No. 4, pp. 316 –331.

Kopecký, L. (2013) Public relations, Dějiny-teorie- praxe [Public relations, history-theory- practice], Prague: Grada Publishing.

Koucký, J. and Zelenka, M. (2011) Postavení vysokoškoláků a uplatnění absolventů vysokých škol na pracovním trhu 2011 [Position of university students and employment of university graduates on the labour market], Prague: Středisko vzdělávací politiky, Univerzita Karlova v Praze.

Krahn, H. J. and Galambos, N. L. (2014) ‘Work values and beliefs of ‘Generation X’ and ‘Generation Y’, Journal of Youth Studies, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 92–112.

Kunze, F., Boehm, S. and Bruch, H. (2013) ‘Age, resistance to change, and job performance’, Journal of Management Psychology, Vol. 28, No. 7-8, pp. 741–760.

Kubátová, J. (2016) ‘Work-Related Attitudes of Czech Generation Z: International Comparison’, Central European Business Review, Vol. 5, No. 4, pp. 61–70.

Kuron, L. K. J., Lyons, S. T., Schweitzer, L. and Ng, E. S. W. (2015) ‘Millennials’ work values: differencies across the school to work transition’, Personnel Review, Vol. 44, No. 6, pp. 991–1009.

Lee, Y.-J. and Haley E. (2020) ‘How Do Generational differences Drive Response to Social -Issue Ads? The Effect of Value Orientations Across Generations in the U.S’, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 60, No. 3, pp. 271–289.

Lyons, S. T. and Kuron, L. (2014) ‘Generational differences in the workplace: A review of the evidence and directions for future research’, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 35, No. S1, pp. 139–157.

Maršíková, K and Urbánek, V. (2015) ‘A comparison of educational mismatches across Europe’, Ekonomie and Management, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 24–38.

Malik, S. and Khera S.N. (2014) ‘New generation –great expectations Exploring the work attributes of gen y’, Global Journal of Finance and Management, Vol. 6, No. 5, pp. 433–438.

Mavromaras, K. and McGuinness, S. (2012) ‘Overskilling dynamics and education pathways’, Ecoomics of Education Review, Vol. 31, No. 5, pp. 619–628.

Ng, E. S., and McGinnis-Johnson, J. (2015) ‘Millennials: Who are they, how are they different, and why should we care?’, in Burke, R. J., Cooper, C. and Antoniou A. (ed.), The Multigenerational Workforce: Challenges and Opportunities for Organisations, pp. 121–137

Raemdonck, I., Beausaert, S., Fröhlich, D. Kochoian, N. and Meurant, C. (2015) ‘Age related changes in learning and employability’, in Bal, P. M., Kooij, D. T. A. M. and Rosseau, D. (ed.), Aging Workers and the Employee-Employer Relationship, pp. 163–184. Cham: Springer.

O’Leary, S. (2017) ‘Graduates’ experiences of, and attitudes towards, the inclusion of employability-related support in undergraduate degree programmes; trends and variations by subject discipline and gender’, Journal of Education and Work, Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 84–105. https://doi:10.1080/13639080.2015.1122181

Rupp, D. E. Shao, R., Thornton, M. A. and Skarlicki, D. P. (2013) ‘Applicants' and employees' reactions to corporate social responsibility: the moderating effects of first-party justice perceptions and moral identity’, Personnel Psychology, Vol. 66, No. 4, pp. 895–933.

Rampl, V. L (2014) ‘How to become an employer of choice: transforming employer brand associations into employer first-choice brands’, Journal of Marketing Management, Vol. 30, No. 13-14, pp. 1486–1504.

Saba, T. (2013) Understanding generational differences in the workplace: Findings and conclusions, Kingston, ON: Queen’s University IRC.

Salahodjaev, R. (2015) ‘Is more always good? Over-education, job satisfaction and wages on the Czech labor market’, Society and economy, Vol. 37, No. 3, pp. 403–414.

Rani, N. and Samuel, A. (2016) ‘A study on generational differences in work values and person-organization fit and its effect on turnover intention of Generation Y in India’, Management Research Review, Vol. 39. No. 12, pp. 1695–1719.

Sánchez-Sánchez, N. and McGuiness, S. (2015) ‘Decomposing the impacts of overeducation and overskilling on earnings and job satisfaction: an analysis using REFLEX data’, Educations economics, Vol. 23., No. 4, pp. 419–432.

Schroth, H. (2019) ‘Are You ready for generation Z in Workplace?’, Californiam Management Review, Vol. 61, No. 3, pp. 5–18.

Shragay, D. and Tziner, A. (2011) ‘The Generational Effect on the Relationship between Job Involvement, Work Satisfaction, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior’, Revista de Psicología del Trabajo y de las Organizaciones, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 143–157.

Schultz, R. and Schwepker, Ch. H. (2012) ‘Boomers vs. Millennials: Critical Conflict Regarding Sales Culture, SalesforceRecognition, and Supervisor Expectations’, International Journal of Business, Humanities and Technology, Vol. 2, No.1, pp. 32–41.

Spurk, D. and Abele, A. E. (2011) ‘Who earns more and why? A multiple mediation model from personality to salary’, Journal of Business and Psychology, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 87–103.

Šnýdrová, M., Vnoučková, L. and Šnýdrová, I. (2019) ‘Factors affecting choice of employment by university graduates’, Scientific Papers of the University of Pardubice, Series D, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 159–170.

Twenge, J. M. Campbell, S.M., Hoffman, B.J. and Lance, Ch. E. (2010) ‘Generational differences in Work Values: Leisure and extrinsic values increasing, social and intrinsic values decreasing’, Journal of Management, Vol. 36, No. 5, pp.1117–1142.

Yi, X., Ribbens, B., Fu, L. and Weibo Cheng, L. F. (2015) ‘Variation in career and workplace attitudes by generation, gender, and culture differences in career perceptions in the United States and China’, Employee Relations, Vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 66–82.

Yogamalar, I. and Samuel, A. (2016) ‘Shared values and organizational citizenship behavior of generational cohorts: A Review and future directions’, Management: Journal of Contemporary Management Issues, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 249–271.

Turner, A. (2015) ‘Generation Z: Technology and Social Interest’, The Journal of Individual Psychology, Vol. 71, No. 2. Pp. 103–113.

Vnoučková, L., Smolová, H. and Depoo, T. (2019) ‘The Perceived Value of Higher Business Education: A Survey of Business Students’, Aula, Vol. 27, No. 1-2. pp. 20–32.

Zelenka, M. (2019) ‘Massification of tertiary education and the change in the position of graduates on the labor market in the Visegrad countries’, Aula, Vol. 17, No. 1-2. pp. 3–20. [in Czech]

Additional Files



How to Cite

Šnýdrová, M., Depoo, L. . and Šnýdrová, I. . (2021) ’How University Graduation Shapes Attitudes Toward Employment in Different Generations Operating at Job Market?’, Journal on Efficiency and Responsibility in Education and Science, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 143–153



Research Paper